The Implementation of Building Information Modelling (BIM) Level 2 in the UK Construction Industry
: The Case of Small and Medium Enterprises

  • Khaled Abu Awwad

    Student thesis: Doctoral ThesisDoctor of Philosophy


    This thesis investigates the implementation of Building Information Modelling (BIM) Level 2 in Small and Medium sized enterprises (SMEs) in the UK construction industry. The research has found that the main focus of literature and existing frameworks regarding BIM adoption and implementation has been on larger companies and so the implementation of this technology in SMEs has been lagging behind. . This slow adoption, has led to a competitive disadvantage for SMEs in public projects and possibly private projects, in particular, after the UK government has mandated the use of BIM Level 2 in all public projects from 2016. Therefore, the main aim of this thesis is to bridge this gap by exploring the current situation of BIM Level 2 implementation within SMEs, as well as proposing a validated framework which supports SMEs in BIM Level 2 implementation process.

    The present thesis has adopted an interpretivist research philosophy and the approach was inductive in nature. To collect the data from the selected case studies, a semi-structured interview protocol was designed in accordance with the research objectives which was aimed at getting the views and opinions of a sample of 25 professional in the UK construction industry in three case studies.

    This study has identified 15 critical success factors which have influenced the adoption and implementation of BIM Level 2 within SMEs, which included 12 critical factors previously mentioned in the literature and 3 new proposed critical success factors, which were: control of performance, use of an external consultant and knowledge transfer. All 15 factors were classified into four categories, which included: human factors, organisational factors, process factors and external factors. They were then mapped into the implementation lifecycle based on their importance for achieving a successful implementation. In addition to these theoretical contributions, this thesis also makes a contribution to practice for SMEs in the UK construction industry by identifying the critical success factors that are important for successful implementation and by providing SMEs a framework and a set of recommendations to assist them throughout the implementation process.
    Date of AwardMay 2020
    Original languageEnglish
    Awarding Institution
    • Coventry University
    SupervisorAbdussalam Shibani (Supervisor) & Messaoud Saidani (Supervisor)


    • Building Information modelling Level 2
    • Small and Medium Enterprises
    • Critical Success Factors
    • Implementation Lifecycle
    • UK Construction Industry
    • Validated Framework

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