The development of an 'actionable' E-Work life scale with reference to self reported well-being and job effectiveness

Student thesis: Doctoral ThesisDoctor of Philosophy


The development of an 'actionable' E-Work life scale with reference to self reported well-being and job effectiveness.

The classical method was used to develop the E-Work life scalewhich involved interviews, sorting methods, item reduction, checks for reliability,validityand factor analysis. The study was completed in three phases. Phase onereviewed research on existing work-life balance measures and conducted eleven interviews with exemplar e-workers across five different organisations, and three sectors. Findings showed differences in the types of e-workers, their access to technology,ability to work flexiblyand individual competencies. Ten themes emerged from thematic analysis including, trust, management style, individual attributes and autonomy over workload. Phase two conductedan on-line survey testingthe E-Work life scales, alongside an existingwell-being scale. Over 250 e-working participants across11organisations andthree sectors tookpart. Principal Component Analysis was completed to explorethe dimensionality. Factor analysis supported items clustering into seven factors after item reduction, not all items in the sub-scales related to the postulated dimensionsand further work would be required to demonstrate these links.Reliability of the E-Work life scale using Cronbach’s alpha was found to be 0.8 after item reduction. Items were checked for face, content and criterion validity.A final uni-dimensional scale wasproduced containing 28 items.Phase three provided aset of suggested interventions thatrelateddirectly to the scale, these were developed and tested through qualitative interviews withten expert e-workers. Findings from frameworkanalysis of the interviews indicated that to curb the negative affects of e-working, an organisational culturebased on rewarding outputsas opposed topresenteeism would bebeneficial. Autonomy to manage workload and management style were found to be important indicators. The E-Work life scale presentsa unique contribution to research and practice by drawing together the impact of the two related topics of e-working and work-life balance. Thescaleisrelevant to both employees and employers to improve their e-working capabilities. The scaleincluded measures of job effectiveness and well-being further adding a new contribution to research in work-life balance. The scale formspart of a developing consultancy tool which will be commercially viable. Further testing of the scale and postulated dimensionsis required on diverse e-working samplesto complete Confirmatory Factor Analysis and to develop norms. Furtherstudiescould focuson developingcompetencies for e-workerscontinuing to develop the e-worker classificationwhich emerged from thisresearch. Other future studies could build on findings investigatingin more depth the mental health of e-workers.

Date of Award2011
Original languageEnglish
Awarding Institution
  • Coventry University
SupervisorLouise Wallace (Supervisor) & Peter Spurgeon (Supervisor)


  • Work-life balance
  • e-working
  • remote working
  • teleworking
  • managing boundaries
  • role conflict
  • behaviours and skills
  • well-being
  • interventions
  • psychometric test development
  • job effectiveness
  • productivity

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