Modelling and simulation studies on near-field beamforming based through wall imaging system

  • Preetham Shankpal

    Student thesis: Doctoral ThesisDoctor of Philosophy


    This thesis presents a simulation model of Stepped Frequency (SF) and Near Field BeamForming (NF BF) based stationary Through Wall Imaging (TWI) system to scan an object behind the wall for the reconstruction of 2D/3D image of it. The developed simulation model of TWI system requires neither the movement of the antenna array nor the object to reconstruct the image of the object behind the wall, thus overcoming the limitation of SAR/ISAR based TWI system. The simulation model of TWI system arrived at in this thesis facilitates the scan of the desired scenario in both azimuth and elevation to maximize the information available for more effective reconstruction of the Image of object behind the wall. The reconstruction of the image has been realized through conventional image processing algorithms which are devoid of inversion techniques to minimize the computational burden as well as the overall execution time of the TWI system. Contrary to the present TWI systems, the proposed simulation model has the capability for the reconstruction of the shape and contour of the object. In addition, the formulated simulation model of the TWI system overcomes the previously imposed constraints on the distances of separation between the object and the wall as well as the wall and the target. The simulation model of TWI of this thesis can handle arbitrary distances (far field or near field) between the antenna array and the wall as well as the wall and the object, which is not the case with the existing TWI systems.

    The thesis provides wave propagation analysis from the transmitting antenna array through the wall and the obstacle behind it and back to the receiver. Subsystems of TWI system like beamforming antenna arrays, wall and obstacles have been modeled individually. The thesis proposes a novel near field beamforming method that overcomes the usual requirement of 3D or volumetric near field radiation patterns of the beamforming array. Typical simulation results of NF BF with linear and planar arrays reveal the beam formation at a distance of one wavelength from the aperture of the array and which corresponds to the ratio of observation distance to aperture of array to be 0.2334. As a supplement to the presented NF BF a generic and versatile procedure to compute near field radiation patterns of antennas with prior knowledge of its either field or current distribution over the radiating aperture is also proposed. Examples of reconstruction of images of typical 2D and 3D objects are also illustrated in the thesis.
    Date of Award2014
    Original languageEnglish
    Awarding Institution
    • Coventry University
    • M S Ramaiah University of Applied Sciences
    SupervisorGovind Kadambi (Supervisor) & James Shuttleworth (Supervisor)


    • through wall imaging systems

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