Economic feasibility of production and export of organic cocoa in south-western Nigeria

  • Anuoluwapo Temitope Odukoya

    Student thesis: Master's ThesisMaster of Science by Research


    The increased consciousness of consumers concerning safety of what they consume as well as increased awareness about the safety of the environment have brought organic farming into the limelight. Developing countries have great potential for exploiting the organic market as there is a large market demand for organic products in the developed countries especially in Europe and America. Nigeria, one of the biggest world cocoa producers can access and exploit the organic cocoa and /or organic chocolate market. This study examined the economic feasibility of production and export of organic cocoa in south-western, Nigeria. Data were collected by a structured questionnaire and a field survey, and one hundred cocoa farmers were sampled. Conventional Nigerian cocoa farmers encountered numerous problems such as high labour cost, unavailability of labour, lack of capital, insufficient supply of agro–chemicals, price fluctuation, and pest and disease infestation. Black pod disease is the predominant cocoa disease and this is can be controlled organically by traditional practices such as farm sanitation and application of neem leaves extract, and by planting resistant varieties. Hand-weeding was found to be effective in achieving a high yield of conventional cocoa in Nigeria. This result favours organic production of cocoa in the study area. Using gross margin analysis both conventional and organic production systems were found to be profitable in Nigeria but conventional production had higher production cost, thus making organic cocoa production potentially more profitable if yields were maintained, since farmers would enjoy the double benefit of a higher revenue from the premium price and reduced production cost (total revenue of proposed organic production is 5% to 79% higher and 40% reduction in production cost as against conventional production). This study recommends that the ways in which Ghanaian organic cocoa production has been established, and the methods used for organic cocoa production and crop production, should be studied and adopted in Nigeria as these two countries are in the same agroecological zone and are likely to face similar challenges to organic production.
    Date of Award2009
    Original languageEnglish
    Awarding Institution
    • Coventry University


    • agriculture
    • Nigeria
    • cocoa production
    • cocoa export
    • organic chocolate market
    • organic cocoa
    • organic farming

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