Wireless Communication Test on 868 MHz and 2.4 GHz from inside the 18650 Li-Ion Enclosed Metal Shell

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As the RF communication on 18650 Li-ion cell level has not been reported due to its challenges and constrains, in this work, a valid wireless data link is demonstrated in an enclosed empty metal shell at 868 MHz and 2.4 GHz based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard. The experimental tests are carried out using two generic unturned radiative structures, a wire loop fitted inside a cell shell, and an open terminal sub miniature version A (SMA), subsequently oriented vertically and horizontally relative to the ground plane. Based on signal strength indicator, bit error rate, and packet error rate, the test characterized a payload of 120 bytes at the highest speed of 150 kbps and 250 kbps supported by the IEEE 802.15.4 for the two communication frequencies. A MATLAB simulation is used in parallel to determine the three-dimensional radiative pattern of the two structures, whereas a three-ray model for multipath range propagation is implemented to complete the empirical experiments. It was demonstrated through testing communication of up to 10 m for both operating frequencies, proving the concept of wireless cell communication within short ranges, an essential feature for monitoring the health of each cell inside future electric vehicles (EVs).
Original languageEnglish
Article number1966
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2 Mar 2022

Bibliographical note

Copyright: © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https:// creativecommons.org/licenses/by/ 4.0/)


Funding Information: Funding: This research was funded by by the Innovate UK project CALIBRE (Grant Reference Number 104176).


  • 2.4 GHz
  • 868 MHz
  • Battery
  • Li‐ion
  • Power line communication
  • Smart cell
  • Wireless

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Information Systems
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Biochemistry
  • Instrumentation
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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