Wheel torque distribution optimization of four-wheel independent-drive electric vehicle for energy efficient driving

Junnian Wang, Shoulin Gao, Kai Wang, Yan Wang, Qingsong Wang

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    37 Citations (Scopus)
    133 Downloads (Pure)


    With the help of several in-wheel motors, four-wheel independent-drive electric vehicle (4WIDEV) has tremendous potential to improve vehicle performance. Except for the theme of stability enhancement during the past two decades, energy saving topic becomes more attractive recently. However, it is difficult to achieve stability and economy performance simultaneously. Given the commonly used control method of rigid yaw rate tracking may limit the energy saving potential of 4WIDEV in cornering. Therefore, be different from previous studies which often focus on a sole target, in this paper, a driving energy management strategy for 4WIDEV based on multi-objective online optimization of four-wheel torque distribution is proposed in this paper, which includes weighted yaw rate tracking error into its parameterized control objectives besides electric drive system efficiency, tire slip losses and wheel torque ripple. Meanwhile, for better coordination of stability and economy in different situation, fuzzy logic control is adopted to dynamically adjust the weight of the control objective indexes of the proposed multi-objective online optimization function. Then, a particle swarm optimization algorithm is adopted to solve the optimization function. Finally, the proposed strategy for energy-efficient driving is verified based on the built Simulink and CarSim co-simulation model. The results show that the proposed four-wheel torque distribution strategy based on the multi-objective online optimization is more effective than average distribution strategy and offline optimization strategy.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article number104779
    Number of pages14
    JournalControl Engineering Practice
    Early online date2 Mar 2021
    Publication statusPublished - May 2021

    Bibliographical note

    © 2021, Elsevier. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/

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    This document is the author’s post-print version, incorporating any revisions agreed during the peer-review process. Some differences between the published version and this version may remain and you are advised to consult the published version if you wish to cite from it.


    The authors gratefully acknowledge the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51875235 ), Jilin Province Science and Technology Development Plan-International Science and Technology Cooperation Project, China (Grant No. 20180414011GH ) and the Fundamental Research Funds for Central Universities of China (Grant No. 2020-JCXK-24 ) for their funding support.


    • Electric vehicle
    • Energy efficiency
    • Independent drive
    • Multi-objective
    • Online optimization
    • Torque distribution control

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Control and Systems Engineering
    • Computer Science Applications
    • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
    • Applied Mathematics


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