OBJECTIVES: This study investigated whether wave reflection measured by wave intensity analysis predicts future cardiovascular events in individuals with hypertension and sought to establish whether this relationship is independent of other cardiovascular risk factors and is associated with evidence of increased load on the left ventricle.
BACKGROUND: Wave reflection may impose an additional load on the left ventricle, and augmentation index, a surrogate of wave reflection, has been reported to predict cardiovascular events in some, but not all studies.
METHODS: Measurements of brachial and carotid blood pressure (BP) measurement, carotid ultrasound, echocardiography, and blood chemistry analyses were performed on 259 ASCOT (Anglo Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial) participants approximately 1 year after randomization, and wave intensity analysis was used to calculate wave reflection index (WRI), the ratio of peak forward to peak backward pressure (P(b)/P(f)), and carotid augmentation index (cAI(x)). All participants were followed up for a median period of 5.9 years, accruing 33 cardiovascular events.
RESULTS: WRI, P(b)/P(f), and to a lesser extent, cAI(x), were correlated. WRI predicted cardiovascular events (hazard ratio: 2.10; 95% confidence interval: 1.10 to 3.99; p = 0.02) in an unadjusted model. Multivariate analysis showed that this association was independent of BP. P(b)/P(f) and cAI(x) did not significantly predict cardiovascular events. WRI was also positively associated with increased left ventricular mass index and elevated B-type natriuretic peptide adjusted for age and sex, and these associations were independent of BP or other cardiovascular risk factors.
CONCLUSIONS: Higher wave reflection predicts future cardiovascular events independent of conventional risk factors in people with treated hypertension.
Bibliographical noteCopyright (c) 2010 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
- Blood Pressure/physiology
- Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology
- Heart Ventricles/physiopathology
- Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood
- Risk Factors