Water Management Education in the East African Region: A Review of the Challenges to Be Addressed

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Increased urbanisation coupled with inadequate awareness of the public on the issue of freshwater resource management has affected the use and the availability of freshwater resources in urban areas of Uganda, Kenya, and Tanzania. Lake Victoria has been the clearest example, with the water level decreasing 0.005 m/year from 1993 to 2016 causing an overall drop of 0.115 m. In order to develop sustainable methods for addressing these issues, this paper critically reviews the different legal frameworks used in each country (Uganda, Kenya, and Tanzania) adopted to manage the water resources and identifies the challenges faced by each legal framework applied. It also analyses the education systems implemented within these three nations to educate students at various levels about water resources and identifies the challenges involved in each system. Finally, suggestions are made for future research to be conducted to obtain specific benefits for better management of water resources in East Africa.
Original languageEnglish
Article number11597
Number of pages22
Issue number15
Publication statusPublished - 27 Jul 2023

Bibliographical note

© 2023 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)


B.N., M.R., M.K., J.C. and M.B. gratefully acknowledge the support from Coventry University, UK, and resources offered by the Centre for Agroecology Water and Resilience (CAWR).
I (Brian) would like to thank Beatrice Semugera (Mum) and Kintu Steven (Uncle) for supporting me in terms of paying my tuition and continuing with my studies.


  • urbanisation
  • education
  • water resource management
  • unified research ideas
  • water demand
  • variation of water in Lake Victoria


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