Warning notes in a learners’ dictionary: a study of the effectiveness of different formats

Şükrü Nural, Hilary Nesi, Tuna Çakar

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This study used an online correction task to explore the extent to which different types of warning notes in Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English Online were heeded when users tried to correct errors in the use of L2 target words. The task was completed by 332 participants, yielding 1,819 answers produced after clicking on links to relevant entries. Warning notes were categorised in terms of their formatting features, but there were found to be inconsistencies in the way the dictionary associated different categories with different kinds of learner error. Participants judged warning notes with more visual enhancements to be more useful, but in the correction task the position of the warning notes also seemed to affect the degree to which the warnings were successfully applied. Different types of warning notes in learners’ dictionaries have not been examined previously in any depth, and the results suggest that some adjustments to formatting and placement might make them more effective.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)449-467
Number of pages19
JournalInternational Journal of Lexicography
Issue number4
Early online date25 Jan 2022
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2022

Bibliographical note

This is a pre-copyedited, author-produced version of an article accepted for publication in International Journal of Lexicography following peer review. The version of record Nural, Ş, Nesi, H & Çakar, T 2022, 'Warning notes in a learners’ dictionary: a study of the effectiveness of different formats', International Journal of Lexicography, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 449-467. is available online at: https://doi.org/10.1093/ijl/ecab033

Copyright © and Moral Rights are retained by the author(s) and/ or other copyright owners. A copy can be downloaded for personal non-commercial research or study, without prior permission or charge. This item cannot be reproduced or quoted extensively from without first obtaining permission in writing from the copyright holder(s). The content must not be changed in any way or sold commercially in any format or medium without the formal permission of the copyright holders.

This document is the author’s post-print version, incorporating any revisions agreed during the peer-review process. Some differences between the published version and this version may remain and you are advised to consult the published version if you wish to cite from it.


  • warning notes
  • typographical features
  • noticing
  • error correction
  • dictionary use


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