Visible Light Communications: 170 Mb/s Using an Artificial Neural Network Equalizer in a Low Bandwidth White Light Configuration

P. A. Haigh, Z. Ghassemlooy, Sujan Rajbhandari, I. Papakonstantinou, W. Popoola

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

66 Citations (Scopus)
24 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate for the first time an on off keying modulated visible light communications system achieving 170 Mb/s using an artificial neural network (ANN) based equalizer. Adaptive decision feedback (DF) and linear equalizers are also implemented and the system performances are measured using both real time (TI TMS320C6713 digital signal processing board) and offline (MATLAB) implementation of the equalizers. The performance of each equalizer is analyzed in this paper using a low bandwidth (4.5 MHz) light emitting diode (LED) as the transmitter and a large bandwidth (150 MHz) PIN photodetector as the receiver. The achievable data rates using the white spectrum are 170, 90, 40 and 20 Mb/s for ANN, DF, linear and unequalized topologies, respectively. Using a blue filter to isolate the fast blue component of the LED (at the cost of the power contribution of the yellowish wavelengths) is a popular method of improving the data rate. We further demonstrate that it is possible to sustain higher data rates from the white light with ANN equalization than the blue component due to the high signal-to-noise ratio that is obtained from retaining the yellowish wavelengths. Using the blue component we could achieve data rates of 150, 130, 90 and 70 Mb/s for the same equalizers, respectively.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1807 - 1813
JournalJournal of Lightwave Technology
Volume32
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2014

Fingerprint

optical communication
bandwidth
configurations
light emitting diodes
keying
retaining
wavelengths
transmitters
photometers
telecommunication
signal processing
signal to noise ratios
topology
receivers
filters

Bibliographical note

“© 2014 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media, including reprinting/republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works, for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other works.”

Keywords

  • amplitude shift keying
  • equalisers
  • light emitting diodes
  • neural nets
  • optical communication
  • optical filters
  • p-i-n photodiodes
  • photodetectors
  • ANN equalization
  • LED
  • PIN photodetector
  • TI TMS320C6713 digital signal processing board
  • adaptive decision feedback
  • artificial neural network equalizer
  • bandwidth 150 MHz
  • bandwidth 4.5 MHz
  • bit rate 130 Mbit/s
  • bit rate 150 Mbit/s
  • bit rate 170 Mbit/s
  • bit rate 20 Mbit/s
  • bit rate 40 Mbit/s
  • bit rate 70 Mbit/s
  • bit rate 90 Mbit/s
  • blue component
  • blue filter
  • light emitting diode
  • linear equalizers
  • linear topologies
  • low bandwidth white light configuration
  • offline MATLAB implementation
  • on off keying modulated visible light communications system
  • signal-to-noise ratio
  • system performances
  • unequalized topologies
  • white spectrum
  • yellowish wavelengths
  • Adaptive equalizer
  • artificial neural network (ANN)
  • light emitting diodes (LEDs)
  • visible light communications (VLCs)
  • Artificial neural networks
  • Bandwidth
  • Digital signal processing
  • Equalizers
  • Light emitting diodes
  • MATLAB
  • Signal to noise ratio

Cite this

Visible Light Communications: 170 Mb/s Using an Artificial Neural Network Equalizer in a Low Bandwidth White Light Configuration. / Haigh, P. A.; Ghassemlooy, Z.; Rajbhandari, Sujan; Papakonstantinou, I.; Popoola, W.

In: Journal of Lightwave Technology, Vol. 32, No. 9, 01.05.2014, p. 1807 - 1813.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{6ecd1b12670a4927a4aa31a278eae12e,
title = "Visible Light Communications: 170 Mb/s Using an Artificial Neural Network Equalizer in a Low Bandwidth White Light Configuration",
abstract = "In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate for the first time an on off keying modulated visible light communications system achieving 170 Mb/s using an artificial neural network (ANN) based equalizer. Adaptive decision feedback (DF) and linear equalizers are also implemented and the system performances are measured using both real time (TI TMS320C6713 digital signal processing board) and offline (MATLAB) implementation of the equalizers. The performance of each equalizer is analyzed in this paper using a low bandwidth (4.5 MHz) light emitting diode (LED) as the transmitter and a large bandwidth (150 MHz) PIN photodetector as the receiver. The achievable data rates using the white spectrum are 170, 90, 40 and 20 Mb/s for ANN, DF, linear and unequalized topologies, respectively. Using a blue filter to isolate the fast blue component of the LED (at the cost of the power contribution of the yellowish wavelengths) is a popular method of improving the data rate. We further demonstrate that it is possible to sustain higher data rates from the white light with ANN equalization than the blue component due to the high signal-to-noise ratio that is obtained from retaining the yellowish wavelengths. Using the blue component we could achieve data rates of 150, 130, 90 and 70 Mb/s for the same equalizers, respectively.",
keywords = "amplitude shift keying, equalisers, light emitting diodes, neural nets, optical communication, optical filters, p-i-n photodiodes, photodetectors, ANN equalization, LED, PIN photodetector, TI TMS320C6713 digital signal processing board, adaptive decision feedback, artificial neural network equalizer, bandwidth 150 MHz, bandwidth 4.5 MHz, bit rate 130 Mbit/s, bit rate 150 Mbit/s, bit rate 170 Mbit/s, bit rate 20 Mbit/s, bit rate 40 Mbit/s, bit rate 70 Mbit/s, bit rate 90 Mbit/s, blue component, blue filter, light emitting diode, linear equalizers, linear topologies, low bandwidth white light configuration, offline MATLAB implementation, on off keying modulated visible light communications system, signal-to-noise ratio, system performances, unequalized topologies, white spectrum, yellowish wavelengths, Adaptive equalizer, artificial neural network (ANN), light emitting diodes (LEDs), visible light communications (VLCs), Artificial neural networks, Bandwidth, Digital signal processing, Equalizers, Light emitting diodes, MATLAB, Signal to noise ratio",
author = "Haigh, {P. A.} and Z. Ghassemlooy and Sujan Rajbhandari and I. Papakonstantinou and W. Popoola",
note = "“{\circledC} 2014 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media, including reprinting/republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works, for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other works.”",
year = "2014",
month = "5",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1109/JLT.2014.2314635",
language = "English",
volume = "32",
pages = "1807 -- 1813",
journal = "Journal of Lightwave Technology",
issn = "0733-8724",
publisher = "Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers",
number = "9",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Visible Light Communications: 170 Mb/s Using an Artificial Neural Network Equalizer in a Low Bandwidth White Light Configuration

AU - Haigh, P. A.

AU - Ghassemlooy, Z.

AU - Rajbhandari, Sujan

AU - Papakonstantinou, I.

AU - Popoola, W.

N1 - “© 2014 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media, including reprinting/republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works, for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other works.”

PY - 2014/5/1

Y1 - 2014/5/1

N2 - In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate for the first time an on off keying modulated visible light communications system achieving 170 Mb/s using an artificial neural network (ANN) based equalizer. Adaptive decision feedback (DF) and linear equalizers are also implemented and the system performances are measured using both real time (TI TMS320C6713 digital signal processing board) and offline (MATLAB) implementation of the equalizers. The performance of each equalizer is analyzed in this paper using a low bandwidth (4.5 MHz) light emitting diode (LED) as the transmitter and a large bandwidth (150 MHz) PIN photodetector as the receiver. The achievable data rates using the white spectrum are 170, 90, 40 and 20 Mb/s for ANN, DF, linear and unequalized topologies, respectively. Using a blue filter to isolate the fast blue component of the LED (at the cost of the power contribution of the yellowish wavelengths) is a popular method of improving the data rate. We further demonstrate that it is possible to sustain higher data rates from the white light with ANN equalization than the blue component due to the high signal-to-noise ratio that is obtained from retaining the yellowish wavelengths. Using the blue component we could achieve data rates of 150, 130, 90 and 70 Mb/s for the same equalizers, respectively.

AB - In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate for the first time an on off keying modulated visible light communications system achieving 170 Mb/s using an artificial neural network (ANN) based equalizer. Adaptive decision feedback (DF) and linear equalizers are also implemented and the system performances are measured using both real time (TI TMS320C6713 digital signal processing board) and offline (MATLAB) implementation of the equalizers. The performance of each equalizer is analyzed in this paper using a low bandwidth (4.5 MHz) light emitting diode (LED) as the transmitter and a large bandwidth (150 MHz) PIN photodetector as the receiver. The achievable data rates using the white spectrum are 170, 90, 40 and 20 Mb/s for ANN, DF, linear and unequalized topologies, respectively. Using a blue filter to isolate the fast blue component of the LED (at the cost of the power contribution of the yellowish wavelengths) is a popular method of improving the data rate. We further demonstrate that it is possible to sustain higher data rates from the white light with ANN equalization than the blue component due to the high signal-to-noise ratio that is obtained from retaining the yellowish wavelengths. Using the blue component we could achieve data rates of 150, 130, 90 and 70 Mb/s for the same equalizers, respectively.

KW - amplitude shift keying

KW - equalisers

KW - light emitting diodes

KW - neural nets

KW - optical communication

KW - optical filters

KW - p-i-n photodiodes

KW - photodetectors

KW - ANN equalization

KW - LED

KW - PIN photodetector

KW - TI TMS320C6713 digital signal processing board

KW - adaptive decision feedback

KW - artificial neural network equalizer

KW - bandwidth 150 MHz

KW - bandwidth 4.5 MHz

KW - bit rate 130 Mbit/s

KW - bit rate 150 Mbit/s

KW - bit rate 170 Mbit/s

KW - bit rate 20 Mbit/s

KW - bit rate 40 Mbit/s

KW - bit rate 70 Mbit/s

KW - bit rate 90 Mbit/s

KW - blue component

KW - blue filter

KW - light emitting diode

KW - linear equalizers

KW - linear topologies

KW - low bandwidth white light configuration

KW - offline MATLAB implementation

KW - on off keying modulated visible light communications system

KW - signal-to-noise ratio

KW - system performances

KW - unequalized topologies

KW - white spectrum

KW - yellowish wavelengths

KW - Adaptive equalizer

KW - artificial neural network (ANN)

KW - light emitting diodes (LEDs)

KW - visible light communications (VLCs)

KW - Artificial neural networks

KW - Bandwidth

KW - Digital signal processing

KW - Equalizers

KW - Light emitting diodes

KW - MATLAB

KW - Signal to noise ratio

U2 - 10.1109/JLT.2014.2314635

DO - 10.1109/JLT.2014.2314635

M3 - Article

VL - 32

SP - 1807

EP - 1813

JO - Journal of Lightwave Technology

JF - Journal of Lightwave Technology

SN - 0733-8724

IS - 9

ER -