Virtual Tyre Force Sensors: An Overview of Tyre Model-based and Tyre Model-less State Estimation Techniques

Manuel Acosta, Stratis Kanarachos, Mike Blundell

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

33 Citations (Scopus)


This paper presents a deep literature review on tyre force estimation and road grip recognition approaches. With the development of Modern Automotive Control Systems, a precise estimation of a large number of vehicle states is
necessary to guarantee a robust actuation of the controller. Moreover, the estimation of these states must be carried out in a cost-effective and reliable way. The aim of this work is to provide a solid base for the development of Automotive Virtual Sensors, and in particular, Virtual Tyre Force Sensors. An initial overview of the tyre force estimation problem is provided in the first section. After that, tyre and vehicle modelling, as well as observers for vehicle state estimation, are covered in detail in the second section. The third section introduces a brief discussion regarding the main limitations of direct tyre force measurement approaches. In the following sections, relevant works regarding three-axis tyre force estimation and road grip recognition are discussed. The review is structured around longitudinal force estimation, lateral force estimation, combined tyre force estimation, tyre self-alignment torque estimation and vertical tyre force estimation. Within each section, the most significant road grip identification approaches are introduced. An additional section, Road
slope and bank angle compensation, describes relevant work on estimation methods for global chassis orientation. A brief summary of the presented approaches is provided in the section Summary of presented approaches. Finally,
relevant conclusions and further research steps are given in the last section.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)(in press)
JournalProceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
Volume(in press)
Early online date11 Oct 2017
Publication statusPublished - 2017


  • Chassis orientation estimation
  • road grip recognition
  • tyre force estimation
  • tyre self-alignment torque estimation
  • vehicle state estimation
  • virtual tyre force sensors


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