Virtual Battery Pack-Based Battery Management System Testing Framework

Bingxiang Sun, Xinze Zhao, Xitian He, Haijun haijun, Zhenlin Zhu, Xingzhen Zhou

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)
117 Downloads (Pure)


The battery management system (BMS) is a core component to ensure the efficient and safe operation of electric vehicles, and the practical evaluation of key BMS functions is thus of great importance. However, the testing of a BMS with actual battery packs suffers from a poor testing repeatability and a long status transition time due to the uncontrollable degradation of battery systems and testing environment variations. In this paper, to overcome this challenge, we propose an efficient BMS testing framework that uses virtual battery packs rather than actual ones, thus enabling a rapid and accurate evaluation of a BMSs key functions. A series-connected virtual battery pack model through leveraging Copula’s method is formulated to capture the dynamics and inconsistency of individual batteries in the pack. The developed lithium iron phosphate model features low computational efforts and is experimentally validated with different dynamical profiles, implying a high-precision virtual battery pack that is capable of reproducing the actual one. Furthermore, this framework includes a closed-loop testing platform, which can provide the state-of-charge/state-of-power references and thus automatically test and evaluate the states of the battery packs estimated from the BMS. Particularly, we consider the initial polarization that often exists in the batteries during the operation to accurately calibrate the available state-of-power benchmark of battery packs in the real world. The performed BMS testing results using the proposed framework illustrate that the tested BMS cannot adapt to the varied operation conditions, thus leading to high state estimation errors, which may result in the over-charge/discharge or over-temperature of the batteries. Therefore, this work highlights the value of effective BMS testing, providing the promising potential to achieve reliability and durability for battery systems.
Original languageEnglish
Article number680
Number of pages21
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 6 Jan 2023
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (


National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51907005 and 52177206)


  • virtual battery
  • battery pack modeling
  • hardware-in-the-loop testing system
  • BMS closedloop testing platform
  • state-of-charge/state-of-power estimation


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