Validity and reliability of short‐term heart‐rate variability from disposable electrocardiography leads

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    Background and Aims: Single‐use electrocardiography (ECG) leads have been developed to reduce healthcare‐associated infection. This study compared the validity and reliability of short‐term heart rate variability (HRV) obtained from single‐use disposable ECG leads. Methods: Thirty healthy subjects (33 ± 10 years; 9 females) underwent 5‐min resting HRV assessments using disposable (single use) ECG cable and wire system (Kendall DL™ Cardinal Health) and a standard, reusable ECG leads (CardioExpress, Spacelabs Healthcare). Results: Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) with 95% confidence interval (CI) between disposable and reusable ECG leads was for the time domain [R‐R interval (ms); 0.99 (0.91, 1.00)], the root mean square of successive normal R‐R interval differences (RMSSD) (ms); 0.91 (0.76, 0.96), the SD of normal‐to‐normal R‐R intervals (SDNN) (ms); 0.91 (0.68, 0.97) and frequency domain [low‐frequency (LF) normalized units (nu); 0.90 (0.79, 0.95), high frequency (HF) nu; 0.91 (0.80, 0.96), LF power (ms2); 0.89 (0.62, 0.96), HF power (ms2); 0.90 (0.72, 0.96)] variables. The mean difference and upper and lower limits of agreement between disposable and reusable leads for time‐ and frequency‐domain variables were acceptable. Analysis of repeated measures using disposable leads demonstrated excellent reproducibility (ICC 95% CI) for R‐R interval (ms); 0.93 (0.85, 0.97), RMSSD (ms); 0.93 (0.85, 0.97), SDNN (ms); 0.88 (0.75, 0.95), LF power (ms2); 0.87 (0.72, 0.94), and HF power (ms2); 0.88 (0.73, 0.94) with coefficient of variation ranging from 2.2% to 5% (p > 0.37 for all variables). Conclusion: Single‐use Kendall DL™ ECG leads demonstrate a valid and reproducible tool for the assessment of HRV.
    Original languageEnglish
    Article numbere984
    Number of pages7
    JournalHealth Science Reports
    Issue number1
    Early online date8 Dec 2022
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2023

    Bibliographical note

    This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium,provided the original work is properly cited.© 2022 The Authors.Health Science Reportspublished by Wiley Periodicals LLC.


    • Original research
    • disposable leads
    • ECG
    • heart rate variability
    • reproducibility
    • validity


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