Using waste materials and by-products to produce concrete paving blocks

Eshmaiel Ganjian, Ghassan Jalull, Homayoon Sadeghi-Pouya

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    62 Citations (Scopus)
    59 Downloads (Pure)


    Using by-product and waste materials, such as ground granulated blast furnace (GGBS), cement by-pass dust (BPD), run-of-station ash (ROSA), basic oxygen slag (BOS), plasterboard gypsum (PG), incinerator bottom ash aggregate (IBAA), recycle crushed glass (RCG), recycled concrete aggregate (RCA), recycled bricks (RB), steel fibre (SF) and PVA-Fibre for the production of environmentally friendly paving blocks is explored. The combinations of binary and ternary cementitious blends in different mixes are considered. Paving blocks were tested for split tensile strength at 14 and 28 days, slip/skid resistance (BPN), weathering resistance and density were also measured on some selected mixes. The tests results confirmed that a concrete paving mix containing 6.3% GGBS, 0.7%, BPD and 7.0% OPC by weight can decrease Portland cement content by 30% in comparison to the percentage currently being used in most factories, without having a substantial impact on the strength or durability of the paving blocks produced in accordance with BS EN 1338:2003.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)270-275
    JournalConstruction and Building Materials
    Early online date12 Jan 2015
    Publication statusPublished - 15 Feb 2015

    Bibliographical note

    “NOTICE: this is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Construction and Building Materials. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Construction and Building Materials , [77, 2015 (2015)] DOI 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2014.12.048”


    • Paving blocks
    • Fibre concrete
    • Waste materials
    • By-products
    • Split tensile strength


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