Using Glance Behaviour to Inform the Design of Adaptive HMI for Partially Automated Vehicles

Arun Ulahannan, Simon Thompson, Paul Jennings, Stewart Birrell

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    9 Citations (Scopus)
    268 Downloads (Pure)


    Partially automated vehicles present a large range of information to the driver in order to keep them in-the-loop and engaged with monitoring the vehicle's actions. However, existing research shows that this causes cognitive overload and disengagement from the monitoring task. Adaptive Human Machine Interfaces (HMIs) are an emerging technology that might address this problem, by prioritising the information presented. To date, research aiming to define the driver's glance fixation behaviour in a partially automated vehicle to contribute towards an adaptive interface is scarce. This study used a unique three-day longitudinal driving simulator study design to explore which information drivers in a partially automated vehicle require. Twenty-seven participants experienced nine partially automated driving simulations over three consecutive days. Nine information types, developed from standards, previous studies and industry collaboration, were displayed as discrete icons and presented on a surrogate in-vehicle display. Unique to the literature, this study showed that the recorded eye-tracking data demonstrated that usage of the information types changed with longitudinal driving simulator use. This study provides three key contributions: first, the longitudinal study design suggest that single exposure HMI evaluations may be limited in their assessment. Secondly, this study has methodologically shortlisted a list of nine information types that can be used in future studies to represent future partially automated vehicle interfaces. Finally, this is one of the first studies to characterise glance behaviour for partially automated vehicles. With this knowledge, this study contributes important design recommendations for the development of adaptive interfaces.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)4877-4892
    Number of pages16
    JournalIEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
    Issue number5
    Early online date18 Jun 2021
    Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2022

    Bibliographical note

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    • Adaptive HMI
    • Atmospheric measurements
    • Automation
    • Gaze tracking
    • Particle measurements
    • Time measurement
    • Vehicles
    • Visualization
    • eye tracking.
    • interface
    • partially automated
    • vehicle

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Automotive Engineering
    • Mechanical Engineering
    • Computer Science Applications


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