User Fairness in Energy Harvesting-Based LoRa Networks with Imperfect SF Orthogonality

Fatma Benkhelifa, Zhijin Qin, Julie McCann

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)
51 Downloads (Pure)


Long range (LoRa) demonstrates high potential in supporting massive Internet-of-Things (IoT) applications. In this paper, we study the resource allocation in energy harvesting (EH)-enabled LoRa networks with imperfect spreading factor (SF) orthogonality. We maximize the user fairness in terms of the minimum time-averaged throughput while jointly optimizing the SF assignment, the EH time duration, and the transmit power of all LoRa users. First, we provide a general expression of the packet collision time between LoRa users which depends on the SFs and EH duration requirements of each user. Then, we develop two SF allocation schemes that either assure fairness or not for the LoRa users. Within this, we optimize the EH time and the power allocation for single and multiple uplink transmission attempts. For the single uplink transmission attempt, the optimal power allocation is obtained using bisection method. For the multiple uplink transmission attempts, the suboptimal power allocation is derived using concave-convex procedure (CCCP). Our results unearth new findings. Firstly, we demonstrate that the unfair SF allocation algorithm outperforms the others in terms of the minimum data rate. Additionally, we observe that co-SF interference is the main limitation in the throughput performance, and not really energy scarcity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4319-4334
Number of pages16
JournalIEEE Transactions on Communications
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 23 Mar 2021
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

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  • LPWANs
  • Long Range (LoRa) networks
  • concave-convex procedure
  • energy harvesting
  • max-min fairness
  • spreading factors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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