Use of neutron and synchrotron X-ray diffraction for evaluation of residual stresses in a 2024-T351 aluminum alloy variable-polarity plasma-arc weld

S. Ganguly, M. E. Fitzpatrick, L. Edwards

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

27 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The residual stress fields associated with variable-polarity plasma-arc (VPPA) welds in 2024-T351 aluminum alloy plates have been measured nondestructively using neutron and synchrotron X-ray diffraction. Neutron diffraction allows in-depth measurements of the full strain tensor to be made in thick components; synchrotron X-rays allow for rapid measurements of strains inside components, although their penetration is less than that of the neutrons and constraints arising from the diffraction geometry generally lead to only two strain components being easily measurable. Hence, a combination of the two techniques, applied as described herein, is ideal for a detailed nondestructive evaluation of residual stresses in plates. The residual stresses in a 12-mm-thick VPPA-welded aluminum 2024-T351 alloy plate have been measured using neutron diffraction. The stresses were then remeasured by a combination of neutron and synchrotron X-ray diffraction after the plate had been reduced in thickness (or, skimmed) to 7 mm by machining both sides of the weld, mimicking the likely manufacturing operation, should such welds be used in aerospace structures. A strong tensile residual stress field was measured in the longitudinal direction, parallel to the weld, in both the as-welded and skimmed specimens. There was only a slight modification of the residual stress state on skimming.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)411-420
Number of pages10
JournalMetallurgical and Materials Transactions A: Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science
Volume37
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2006
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Synchrotrons
aluminum alloys
plasma jets
residual stress
Aluminum alloys
Residual stresses
polarity
Neutrons
synchrotrons
Welds
Plasmas
neutrons
X ray diffraction
evaluation
diffraction
Neutron diffraction
x rays
stress distribution
neutron diffraction
depth measurement

Keywords

  • Welding
  • Residual Stress
  • Material Transaction
  • Fusion Zone
  • Residual Stress Field

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Metals and Alloys

Cite this

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abstract = "The residual stress fields associated with variable-polarity plasma-arc (VPPA) welds in 2024-T351 aluminum alloy plates have been measured nondestructively using neutron and synchrotron X-ray diffraction. Neutron diffraction allows in-depth measurements of the full strain tensor to be made in thick components; synchrotron X-rays allow for rapid measurements of strains inside components, although their penetration is less than that of the neutrons and constraints arising from the diffraction geometry generally lead to only two strain components being easily measurable. Hence, a combination of the two techniques, applied as described herein, is ideal for a detailed nondestructive evaluation of residual stresses in plates. The residual stresses in a 12-mm-thick VPPA-welded aluminum 2024-T351 alloy plate have been measured using neutron diffraction. The stresses were then remeasured by a combination of neutron and synchrotron X-ray diffraction after the plate had been reduced in thickness (or, skimmed) to 7 mm by machining both sides of the weld, mimicking the likely manufacturing operation, should such welds be used in aerospace structures. A strong tensile residual stress field was measured in the longitudinal direction, parallel to the weld, in both the as-welded and skimmed specimens. There was only a slight modification of the residual stress state on skimming.",
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AB - The residual stress fields associated with variable-polarity plasma-arc (VPPA) welds in 2024-T351 aluminum alloy plates have been measured nondestructively using neutron and synchrotron X-ray diffraction. Neutron diffraction allows in-depth measurements of the full strain tensor to be made in thick components; synchrotron X-rays allow for rapid measurements of strains inside components, although their penetration is less than that of the neutrons and constraints arising from the diffraction geometry generally lead to only two strain components being easily measurable. Hence, a combination of the two techniques, applied as described herein, is ideal for a detailed nondestructive evaluation of residual stresses in plates. The residual stresses in a 12-mm-thick VPPA-welded aluminum 2024-T351 alloy plate have been measured using neutron diffraction. The stresses were then remeasured by a combination of neutron and synchrotron X-ray diffraction after the plate had been reduced in thickness (or, skimmed) to 7 mm by machining both sides of the weld, mimicking the likely manufacturing operation, should such welds be used in aerospace structures. A strong tensile residual stress field was measured in the longitudinal direction, parallel to the weld, in both the as-welded and skimmed specimens. There was only a slight modification of the residual stress state on skimming.

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