Urban and rural habitats differ in number and type of bird feeders and in bird species consuming supplementary food

P. Tryjanowski, P. Skórka, T.H. Sparks, W. Biaduń, T. Brauze, T. Hetmański, R. Martyka, P. Indykiewicz, Ł. Myczko, P. Kunysz, P. Kawa, S. Czyż, P. Czechowski, M. Polakowski, P. Zduniak, L. Jerzak, T. Janiszewski, A. Goławski, L. Duduś, J.J. NowakowskiA. Wuczyński, D. Wysocki

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    Bird feeding is one of the most widespread direct interactions between man and nature, and this has important social and environmental consequences. However, this activity can differ between rural and urban habitats, due to inter alia habitat structure, human behaviour and the composition of wintering bird communities. We counted birds in 156 squares (0.25 km2 each) in December 2012 and again in January 2013 in locations in and around 26 towns and cities across Poland (in each urban area, we surveyed 3 squares and also 3 squares in nearby rural areas). At each count, we noted the number of bird feeders, the number of bird feeders with food, the type of feeders, additional food supplies potentially available for birds (bread offered by people, bins) and finally the birds themselves. In winter, urban and rural areas differ in the availability of food offered intentionally and unintentionally to birds by humans. Both types of food availability are higher in urban areas. Our findings suggest that different types of bird feeder support only those species specialized for that particular food type and this relationship is similar in urban and rural areas. © 2015, The Author(s).
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)15097-15103
    Number of pages7
    JournalEnvironmental Science and Pollution Research
    Issue number19
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2015


    • Central Europe
    • Human support
    • Human-wildlife interaction
    • Supplemental food
    • Urban ecosystems
    • Urbanization
    • Wintering


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