Understanding hypermobile Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and Hypermobility Spectrum Disorders in the context of childbearing: An international qualitative study

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Abstract

Objective
The Ehlers-Danlos syndromes (EDS) and Hypermobility Spectrum Disorders (HSD) have profound and life-threatening consequences in childbearing as they affect connective tissues throughout the body. Hypermobile EDS (hEDS) and HSD are estimated here for the first time to affect 6 million (4.6%) pregnancies globally per year. The aim of this study was to arrive at a deeper biopsychosocial understanding of childbearing in the context of hEDS/HSD.

Methods
English speaking women aged over 18 years who had previously given birth and had a confirmed medical diagnosis of hEDS/HSD or equivalent diagnosis under a preceding nosology were included in this study (n=40). Narrative interviews were used to collect qualitative data from this international sample of participants. Thematic narrative analysis was used to understand how participants made sense of their experiences.

Findings
Participants were aged between 25 and 55. Births (n= 52) between 1981 and 2018 were captured across United Kingdom=29 (73%), United States of America=10 (25%) and Canada=1 (2%). The majority of participants interviewed recounted a worsening of symptoms during pregnancy and postnatal complications. Anaesthesia was often reportedly ineffective, and for many, long latent phases of labour quickly developed into rapidly progressing active labours and births. Maternity staff were observed to be panicked by these unexpected outcomes and were deemed to lack the knowledge and understanding of how to care for women in this context. Poor maternity care resulted in women disengaging from services, trauma, stress, anxiety and an avoidance of future childbearing.

Key conclusions and implications for practice
Cases of hEDS/HSD should no longer be considered rare in maternity services. Maternity staff must be adequately prepared for this new reality. As a first step, www.hEDSTogether.com has been developed to provide a repository of evidence in relation to this topic, along with a freely downloadable toolkit for use in practice. It is important to listen, acknowledge and respond to women with hEDS/HSD appropriately throughout their childbearing journey. Dismissal can lead to trauma and needless morbidity.
Original languageEnglish
Article number102749
JournalMidwifery
Volume88
Early online date25 May 2020
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2020

Keywords

  • Pregnancy
  • Birth
  • Postnatal
  • Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome
  • Joint HypermobilityHypermobility Spectrum Disorders

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