The selective hydrogenation of 2-methyl-3-butyn-2-ol (MBY) was performed in the presence of Lindlar catalyst, comparing conventional stirring with sonication at different frequencies of 40, 380 and 850 kHz. Under conventional stirring, the reaction rates were limited by intrinsic kinetics, while in the case of sonication, the reaction rates were 50–90% slower. However, the apparent reaction rates were found to be significantly frequency dependent with the highest rate observed at 40 kHz. The original and the recovered catalysts after the hydrogenation reaction were compared using bulk elemental analysis, powder X-ray diffraction and scanning and transmission electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. The studies showed that sonication led to the frequency-dependent fracturing of polycrystalline support particles with the highest impact caused by 40 kHz sonication, while monocrystals were undamaged. In contrast, the leaching of Pd/Pb particles did not depend on the frequency, which suggests that sonication removed only loosely-bound catalyst particles.
Bibliographical noteNOTICE: this is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Ultrasonics Sonochemistry. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, [26, (2015)] DOI: 10.1016/j.ultsonch.2015.03.006
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- Lindlar catalyst