Trusted UAV Network Coverage using Blockchain, Machine Learning and Auction Mechanisms

Amjad Saeed Khan, Gaojie Chen, Yogachandran Rahulamathavan , Gan Zheng, Basil Assadhan, Sangarapillai Lambotharan

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    18 Citations (Scopus)
    43 Downloads (Pure)


    The UAV is emerging as one of the greatest technology developments for rapid network coverage provisioning at affordable cost. The aim of this paper is to outsource network coverage of a specific area according to a desired quality of service requirement and to enable various entities in the network to have intelligence to make autonomous decisions using blockchain and auction mechanisms. In this regard, by considering a multiple-UAV network where each UAV is associated to its own controlling operator, this paper addresses two major challenges: the selection of the UAV for the desired quality of network coverage and the development of a distributed and autonomous real-time monitoring framework for the enforcement of service level agreement (SLA). For a suitable UAV selection, we employ a reputation-based auction mechanism to model the interaction between the business agent who is interested in outsourcing the network coverage and the UAV operators serving in closeby areas. In addition, theoretical analysis is performed to show that the proposed auction mechanism attains a dominant strategy equilibrium. For the SLA enforcement and trust model, we propose a permissioned blockchain architecture considering Support Vector Machine (SVM) for real-time autonomous and distributed monitoring of UAV service. In particular, smart contract features of the blockchain are invoked for enforcing the SLA terms of payment and penalty, and for quantifying the UAV service reputation. Simulation results confirm the accuracy of theoretical analysis and efficacy of the proposed model.
    Original languageEnglish
    Article number9121974
    Pages (from-to)118219 - 118234
    Number of pages16
    JournalIEEE Access
    Publication statusPublished - 22 Jun 2020

    Bibliographical note

    Open access. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. For more information, see


    This work was supported in part by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council under Grant EP/R006385/1, Grant EP/N007840/1, and Grant EP/R006377/1, in part by the Leverhulme Trust under Grant RPG-2017-129, in part by the U.K.-India Education Research Initiative (UKIERI) under Grant UGC-UKIERI-2016-17-019, and in part by the International Scientific Partnership Program (ISPP) with King Saud University under Grant ISPP 134.


    • Blockchain
    • auction
    • ergodic capacity
    • service level agreement
    • support vector machine
    • unmanned aerial vehicles

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Computer Science(all)
    • Materials Science(all)
    • Engineering(all)


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