Trial Protocol: Randomised controlled trial of the effects of very low calorie diet, modest dietary restriction, and sequential behavioural programme on hunger, urges to smoke, abstinence and weight gain in overweight smokers stopping smoking

Deborah Lycett, Peter Hajek, Paul Aveyard

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2 Citations (Scopus)
1 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

Background: Weight gain accompanies smoking cessation, but dieting during quitting is controversial as hunger may increase urges to smoke. This is a feasibility trial for the investigation of a very low calorie diet (VLCD), individual modest energy restriction, and usual advice on hunger, ketosis, urges to smoke, abstinence and weight gain in overweight smokers trying to quit.Methods: This is a 3 armed, unblinded, randomized controlled trial in overweight (BMI > 25 kg/m 2 ), daily smokers (CO > 10 ppm); with at least 30 participants in each group. Each group receives identical behavioural support and NRT patches (25 mg(8 weeks),15 mg(2 weeks),10 mg(2 weeks)). The VLCD group receive a 429-559 kcal/day liquid formula beginning 1 week before quitting and continuing for 4 weeks afterwards. The modest energy restricted group (termed individual dietary and activity planning(IDAP)) engage in goal-setting and receive an energy prescription based on individual basal metabolic rate(BMR) aiming for daily reduction of 600 kcal. The control group receive usual dietary advice that accompanies smoking cessation i.e. avoiding feeling hungry but eating healthy snacks. After this, the VLCD participants receive IDAP to provide support for changing eating habits in the longer term; the IDAP group continues receiving this support. The control group receive IDAP 8 weeks after quitting. This allows us to compare IDAP following a successful quit attempt with dieting concurrently during quitting. It also aims to prevent attrition in the unblinded, control group by meeting their need for weight management. Follow-up occurs at 6 and 12 months.Outcome measures include participant acceptability, measured qualitatively by semi-structured interviewing and quantitatively by recruitment and attrition rates. Feasibility of running the trial within primary care is measured by interview and questionnaire of the treatment providers. Adherence to the VLCD is verified by the presence of urinary ketones measured weekly. Daily urges to smoke, hunger and withdrawal are measured using the Mood and Physical Symptoms Scale-Combined (MPSS-C) and a Hunger Craving Score (HCS). 24 hour, 7 day point prevalence and 4-week prolonged abstinence (Russell Standard) is confirmed by CO < 10 ppm. Weight, waist and hip circumference and percentage body fat are measured at each visit.Trial Registration: Current controlled trials ISRCTN83865809.

Original languageEnglish
Article number94
Number of pages14
JournalTrials
Volume11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 7 Oct 2010
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Caloric Restriction
Hunger
Clinical Protocols
Smoke
Weight Gain
Randomized Controlled Trials
Smoking
Smoking Cessation
Carbon Monoxide
Control Groups
Weights and Measures
Basal Metabolism
Snacks
Ketosis
Group Processes
Waist Circumference
Feeding Behavior
Ketones
Prescriptions
Adipose Tissue

Bibliographical note

© Lycett et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2010
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Keywords

  • Nicotine
  • Smoking cessation
  • National Health Service
  • Salbutamol
  • Nicotine Replacement Therapy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Pharmacology (medical)

Cite this

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title = "Trial Protocol: Randomised controlled trial of the effects of very low calorie diet, modest dietary restriction, and sequential behavioural programme on hunger, urges to smoke, abstinence and weight gain in overweight smokers stopping smoking",
abstract = "Background: Weight gain accompanies smoking cessation, but dieting during quitting is controversial as hunger may increase urges to smoke. This is a feasibility trial for the investigation of a very low calorie diet (VLCD), individual modest energy restriction, and usual advice on hunger, ketosis, urges to smoke, abstinence and weight gain in overweight smokers trying to quit.Methods: This is a 3 armed, unblinded, randomized controlled trial in overweight (BMI > 25 kg/m 2 ), daily smokers (CO > 10 ppm); with at least 30 participants in each group. Each group receives identical behavioural support and NRT patches (25 mg(8 weeks),15 mg(2 weeks),10 mg(2 weeks)). The VLCD group receive a 429-559 kcal/day liquid formula beginning 1 week before quitting and continuing for 4 weeks afterwards. The modest energy restricted group (termed individual dietary and activity planning(IDAP)) engage in goal-setting and receive an energy prescription based on individual basal metabolic rate(BMR) aiming for daily reduction of 600 kcal. The control group receive usual dietary advice that accompanies smoking cessation i.e. avoiding feeling hungry but eating healthy snacks. After this, the VLCD participants receive IDAP to provide support for changing eating habits in the longer term; the IDAP group continues receiving this support. The control group receive IDAP 8 weeks after quitting. This allows us to compare IDAP following a successful quit attempt with dieting concurrently during quitting. It also aims to prevent attrition in the unblinded, control group by meeting their need for weight management. Follow-up occurs at 6 and 12 months.Outcome measures include participant acceptability, measured qualitatively by semi-structured interviewing and quantitatively by recruitment and attrition rates. Feasibility of running the trial within primary care is measured by interview and questionnaire of the treatment providers. Adherence to the VLCD is verified by the presence of urinary ketones measured weekly. Daily urges to smoke, hunger and withdrawal are measured using the Mood and Physical Symptoms Scale-Combined (MPSS-C) and a Hunger Craving Score (HCS). 24 hour, 7 day point prevalence and 4-week prolonged abstinence (Russell Standard) is confirmed by CO < 10 ppm. Weight, waist and hip circumference and percentage body fat are measured at each visit.Trial Registration: Current controlled trials ISRCTN83865809.",
keywords = "Nicotine, Smoking cessation, National Health Service, Salbutamol, Nicotine Replacement Therapy",
author = "Deborah Lycett and Peter Hajek and Paul Aveyard",
note = "{\circledC} Lycett et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2010 This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.",
year = "2010",
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T2 - Randomised controlled trial of the effects of very low calorie diet, modest dietary restriction, and sequential behavioural programme on hunger, urges to smoke, abstinence and weight gain in overweight smokers stopping smoking

AU - Lycett, Deborah

AU - Hajek, Peter

AU - Aveyard, Paul

N1 - © Lycett et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2010 This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

PY - 2010/10/7

Y1 - 2010/10/7

N2 - Background: Weight gain accompanies smoking cessation, but dieting during quitting is controversial as hunger may increase urges to smoke. This is a feasibility trial for the investigation of a very low calorie diet (VLCD), individual modest energy restriction, and usual advice on hunger, ketosis, urges to smoke, abstinence and weight gain in overweight smokers trying to quit.Methods: This is a 3 armed, unblinded, randomized controlled trial in overweight (BMI > 25 kg/m 2 ), daily smokers (CO > 10 ppm); with at least 30 participants in each group. Each group receives identical behavioural support and NRT patches (25 mg(8 weeks),15 mg(2 weeks),10 mg(2 weeks)). The VLCD group receive a 429-559 kcal/day liquid formula beginning 1 week before quitting and continuing for 4 weeks afterwards. The modest energy restricted group (termed individual dietary and activity planning(IDAP)) engage in goal-setting and receive an energy prescription based on individual basal metabolic rate(BMR) aiming for daily reduction of 600 kcal. The control group receive usual dietary advice that accompanies smoking cessation i.e. avoiding feeling hungry but eating healthy snacks. After this, the VLCD participants receive IDAP to provide support for changing eating habits in the longer term; the IDAP group continues receiving this support. The control group receive IDAP 8 weeks after quitting. This allows us to compare IDAP following a successful quit attempt with dieting concurrently during quitting. It also aims to prevent attrition in the unblinded, control group by meeting their need for weight management. Follow-up occurs at 6 and 12 months.Outcome measures include participant acceptability, measured qualitatively by semi-structured interviewing and quantitatively by recruitment and attrition rates. Feasibility of running the trial within primary care is measured by interview and questionnaire of the treatment providers. Adherence to the VLCD is verified by the presence of urinary ketones measured weekly. Daily urges to smoke, hunger and withdrawal are measured using the Mood and Physical Symptoms Scale-Combined (MPSS-C) and a Hunger Craving Score (HCS). 24 hour, 7 day point prevalence and 4-week prolonged abstinence (Russell Standard) is confirmed by CO < 10 ppm. Weight, waist and hip circumference and percentage body fat are measured at each visit.Trial Registration: Current controlled trials ISRCTN83865809.

AB - Background: Weight gain accompanies smoking cessation, but dieting during quitting is controversial as hunger may increase urges to smoke. This is a feasibility trial for the investigation of a very low calorie diet (VLCD), individual modest energy restriction, and usual advice on hunger, ketosis, urges to smoke, abstinence and weight gain in overweight smokers trying to quit.Methods: This is a 3 armed, unblinded, randomized controlled trial in overweight (BMI > 25 kg/m 2 ), daily smokers (CO > 10 ppm); with at least 30 participants in each group. Each group receives identical behavioural support and NRT patches (25 mg(8 weeks),15 mg(2 weeks),10 mg(2 weeks)). The VLCD group receive a 429-559 kcal/day liquid formula beginning 1 week before quitting and continuing for 4 weeks afterwards. The modest energy restricted group (termed individual dietary and activity planning(IDAP)) engage in goal-setting and receive an energy prescription based on individual basal metabolic rate(BMR) aiming for daily reduction of 600 kcal. The control group receive usual dietary advice that accompanies smoking cessation i.e. avoiding feeling hungry but eating healthy snacks. After this, the VLCD participants receive IDAP to provide support for changing eating habits in the longer term; the IDAP group continues receiving this support. The control group receive IDAP 8 weeks after quitting. This allows us to compare IDAP following a successful quit attempt with dieting concurrently during quitting. It also aims to prevent attrition in the unblinded, control group by meeting their need for weight management. Follow-up occurs at 6 and 12 months.Outcome measures include participant acceptability, measured qualitatively by semi-structured interviewing and quantitatively by recruitment and attrition rates. Feasibility of running the trial within primary care is measured by interview and questionnaire of the treatment providers. Adherence to the VLCD is verified by the presence of urinary ketones measured weekly. Daily urges to smoke, hunger and withdrawal are measured using the Mood and Physical Symptoms Scale-Combined (MPSS-C) and a Hunger Craving Score (HCS). 24 hour, 7 day point prevalence and 4-week prolonged abstinence (Russell Standard) is confirmed by CO < 10 ppm. Weight, waist and hip circumference and percentage body fat are measured at each visit.Trial Registration: Current controlled trials ISRCTN83865809.

KW - Nicotine

KW - Smoking cessation

KW - National Health Service

KW - Salbutamol

KW - Nicotine Replacement Therapy

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