Translation of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire to Maltese and reliability testing

Karl Spiteri, Kate Grafton, John Xerri de Caro, David Broom

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    The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) is a widely used self-reported physical activity (PA) measure at population level, developed to allow for international cross-country comparisons. Due to its unavailability, the aim of this study was to translate the IPAQ-long to Maltese and undertake reliability testing. The IPAQ-long English version was translated into Maltese following the IPAQ guidelines which included backwards translation. Maltese speaking participants, aged between 18 and 69 years, were recruited through convenience sampling (n = 170). Participants completed the IPAQ-long twice within an 8 to 48 hour period between completions. PA was calculated in MET minutes per week and reliability was calculated using Spearman correlation, interclass correlation coefficient (ICC), concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) and Bland Altman plots. 155 participants completed the questionnaire at two time points. Spearman correlation was 0.83 (0.76-0.88) for total PA and 0.84 (0.77-0.89) for total sitting time. The ICC was 0.83 (0.76-0.88) and CCC 0.75-0.87 for total PA. The lowest reliability was for total transport with CCC of 0.21-0.45. Bland Altman plots highlight that 95% of the differences fell within 2 standard deviations from the mean. Since the Maltese IPAQ-long has similar reliability to the English version, we recommend healthcare professionals and physical activity practitioners use this tool when examining population level PA amongst Maltese speaking individuals.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)23-30
    Number of pages8
    JournalJournal for the Measurement of Physical Behavior
    Issue number1
    Early online dateJan 2021
    Publication statusPublished - Mar 2021

    Bibliographical note

    Accepted author manuscript version reprinted, by permission, from Journal for the Measurement of Physical Behavior, 2021, © Human Kinetics, Inc.

    Copyright © and Moral Rights are retained by the author(s) and/ or other copyright owners. A copy can be downloaded for personal non-commercial research or study, without prior permission or charge. This item cannot be reproduced or quoted extensively from without first obtaining permission in writing from the copyright holder(s). The content must not be changed in any way or sold commercially in any format or medium without the formal permission of the copyright holders.


    The authors would like to thank the translators for their time, the experts for reviewing the translation, participants in the cognitive interviewing, those taking part in the questionnaire, and the reviewers for reviewing the article. The research work disclosed in this publication is partly funded by the ENDEAVOUR scholarship scheme (Group B, national funds, Malta). The authors declare no potential conflict of interest. Publisher Copyright: © 2021 Human Kinetics, Inc


    • Physical Activity
    • activity assessment
    • self-reported questionnaire


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