Transition from wall modes to multimodality in liquid gallium magnetoconvection

Yufan Xu, Susanne Horn, Jonathan M. Aurnou

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Coupled laboratory-numerical experiments of Rayleigh-Bénard convection in liquid gallium subject to a vertical magnetic field are presented. The experiments are carried out in two cylindrical containers with diameter-to-height aspect ratio Γ=1.0 and 2.0 at varying thermal forcing (Rayleigh numbers 105R108) and magnetic field strength (Chandrasekhar numbers 0Ch3×105). Laboratory measurements and numerical simulations confirm that magnetoconvection in our finite cylindrical tanks onsets via nondrifting wall-attached modes, in good agreement with asymptotic predictions for a semi-infinite domain. With increasing supercriticality, the experimental and numerical thermal measurements and the numerical velocity data reveal transitions between wall mode states with different azimuthal mode numbers and between wall-dominated convection to wall and interior multimodality. These transitions are also reflected in the heat transfer data, which combined with previous studies connect onset to supercritical turbulent behaviors in liquid metal magnetoconvection over a large parameter space. The gross heat transfer behaviors between magnetoconvection and rotating convection in liquid metals are compared and discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Article number103503
Number of pages21
JournalPhysical Review Fluids
Issue number10
Early online date27 Oct 2023
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 27 Oct 2023

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computational Mechanics
  • Modelling and Simulation
  • Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes


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