ObjectiveAim of this systematic review was to summarise training interventions designed to reduce biomechanical risk factors associated with increased risk of lower extremity landing injuries and to evaluate their practical implications in amateur sports.DesignSystematic review and meta-analysis.Data sourcesMEDLINE, Scopus and SPORTDiscus.Eligibility criteriaTraining intervention(s) aimed at reducing biomechanical risk factors and/or injury rates included the following: (1) prospective or (non-)randomised controlled study design; (2) risk factors that were measured with valid two-dimensional or three-dimensional motion analysis systems or Landing Error Scoring System during jump landings. In addition, meta-analyses were performed, and the risk of bias was assessed.ResultsThirty-one studies met all inclusion criteria, capturing 11 different training interventions (eg, feedback and plyometrics) and 974 participants. A significantly medium effect of technique training (both instruction and feedback) and dynamic strengthening (ie, plyometrics with/without strengthening) on knee flexion angle (g=0.77; 95% CI 0.33 to 1.21) was shown. Only one-third of the studies had training interventions that required minimal training setup and additional coaching educations.ConclusionThis systematic review highlights that amateur coaches can decrease relevant biomechanical risk factors by means of minimal training setup, for example, instructing to focus on a soft landing, even within only one training session of simple technique training. The meta-analysis emphasises implementing technique training as stand-alone or combined with dynamic strengthening into amateur sport training routine.
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© Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2023. Re-use permitted under CC BY-NC. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.
FunderThe authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
- Landing Impact
- Evidence Based Review