Toward a consistent treatment of polarization in model QM/MM calculations

Christopher J.R. Illingworth, Kevin E.B. Parkes, Christopher R. Snell, György G. Ferenczy, Christopher A. Reynolds

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)


The concept of model chemistries within hybrid QM/MM calculations has been addressed through analysis of the polarization energy determined by two distinct approaches based on (i) induced charges and (ii) induced dipoles. The quantum mechanical polarization energy for four configurations of the water dimer has been determined for a range of basis sets using Morokuma energy decomposition analysis. This benchmark value has been compared to the fully classical polarization energy determined using the induced dipole approach, and the molecular mechanics polarization energy calculated using induced charges within the MM region of hybrid QM/MM calculations. From the water dimer calculations, it is concluded that the induced charge approach is consistent with medium sized basis set calculations whereas the induced dipole approach is consistent with large basis set calculations. This result is highly relevant to the concept of QM/MM model chemistries.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)12151-12156
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Physical Chemistry A
Issue number47
Publication statusPublished - 27 Nov 2008
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry


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