Tourism And Exports: The Case of Singapore

Nicholas Tsounis, George Agiomirgianakis, Dimitris Serenis, Antonios Adamopoulos

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


In this article, we examine the relationship between inbound tourism and exports in Singapore. We address whether there is a long-run relationship between exports and tourism and the direction of causality between these two variables. Our findings suggest a long-run relation between Singapore’s exports and inbound tourism and that the causation is bidirectional. This implies that inbound tourism in Singapore results in a higher demand for its domestic products. This increased demand for Singaporean products, in turn, acting as a positive advertising campaign in favor of Singapore, promotes inbound tourism to this country. The policy implication of these findings is twofold. First, inbound tourism in Singapore not only contributes directly to GDP, employment, and the current account via tourism revenues but also by stimulating exports it improves further the current account of Singapore. Secondly, the stimulation of exports induced by inbound tourism creates favorable sustainability conditions for the entire tourism sector. However, one should be cautious that this effect is taking more than 9 months to materialize and that inbound tourism may initially have a negative impact effect on Singapore’s exports as the overtime effect of tourism on exports exhibits a J-curve behavior.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)186-198
Number of pages13
JournalTourism Analysis
Issue number2
Early online date30 Jul 2021
Publication statusPublished - 18 May 2022


  • Causality
  • Cointegration
  • J-curve
  • Singapore
  • Tourism
  • Trade

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Tourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management


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