To delegate or not to delegate: A review of control frameworks for autonomous cars

Dale Richards, Alex Stedmon

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    43 Citations (Scopus)
    687 Downloads (Pure)


    There have been significant advances in technology and automated systems that will eventually see the use of autonomous cars as commonplace on our roads. Various systems are already available that provide the driver with different levels of decision support. This paper highlights the key human factors issues associated with the interaction between the user and an autonomous system, including assistive decision support and the delegation of authority to the automobile. The level of support offered to the driver can range from traditional automated assistance, to system generated guidance that offers advice for the driver to act upon, and even more direct action that is initiated by the system itself without driver intervention. In many of these instances the role of the driver is slowly moving towards a supervisory role within a complex system rather than one of direct control of the vehicle. Different paradigms of interaction are considered and focus is placed on the partnership that takes place between the driver and the vehicle. Drawing on the wealth of knowledge that exists within the aviation domain and research literature that examines technology partnerships within the cockpit, this paper considers important factors that will assist the automotive community to understand the underlying issues of the human and their interaction within complex systems.

    NOTICE: this is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Applied Ergonomics. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Applied Ergonomics, [53, B, (2015)] DOI: 10.1016/j.apergo.2015.10.011

    © 2015, Elsevier. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)383-388
    JournalApplied Ergonomics
    Issue numberB
    Publication statusPublished - Mar 2016


    • Autonomy
    • Automation
    • Control
    • Human factors


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