Tin whisker mitigation by means of a postelectroplating electrochemical oxidation treatment

D. M. Haspel, M. A. Ashworth, L. Wu, G. D. Wilcox, R. J. Mortimer

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    2 Citations (Scopus)
    6 Downloads (Pure)

    Abstract

    There are very few studies that have investigated directly the effect of an oxide film on tin whisker growth, since the 'cracked oxide theory' was proposed by Tu in 1994 [K.-N. Tu: Phys. Rev., 1994, 49, (3), 2030-2034]. The current study has investigated the effect of an electrochemically produced oxide on tin whisker growth, for both Sn-Cu electrodeposits on Cu and pure Sn electrodeposits on brass. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been used to investigate the effect of the applied electrochemical oxidation potential on the oxide film thickness. Focused ion beam has been used to prepare cross sections from electrodeposited samples to investigate the influence of the electrochemically formed oxide film on deposit microstructure during long-term room temperature storage. The XPS studies show that the thickness of electrochemically formed oxide film is directly influenced by the applied potential and the total charge passed. Whisker growth studies show that the electrochemical oxidation treatment mitigates whisker growth for both Sn-Cu electrodeposits on Cu and pure Sn electrodeposits on brass. For Sn electrodeposits on brass, the electrochemically formed oxide greatly reduces both the formation of zinc oxide at the surface and the formation of intermetallic compounds, which results in the mitigation of tin whisker growth. For Sn-Cu electrodeposits on Cu, the electrochemically formed oxide has no apparent effect on intermetallic compound formation and acts simply as a physical barrier to hinder tin whisker growth.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)332-341
    Number of pages10
    JournalTransactions of the Institute of Metal Finishing
    Volume93
    Issue number6
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2015

    Fingerprint

    electrochemical oxidation
    Tin
    Electrochemical oxidation
    tin
    Oxides
    Oxide films
    oxide films
    brasses
    Brass
    oxides
    Intermetallics
    intermetallics
    X ray photoelectron spectroscopy
    photoelectron spectroscopy
    Zinc Oxide
    Focused ion beams
    Zinc oxide
    zinc oxides
    Film thickness
    x rays

    Bibliographical note

    This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis in Transactions of the Institute of Metal Finishing
    on 11/01/16 available online: http://www.tandfonline.com/ 10.1080/00202967.2015.1117258

    Print publication year (2015) given ahead of online publication date (11th January 2016)

    Keywords

    • Electrochemical oxidation
    • Electrodeposition
    • Intermetallic compounds
    • Tin
    • Whisker growth

    Cite this

    Tin whisker mitigation by means of a postelectroplating electrochemical oxidation treatment. / Haspel, D. M.; Ashworth, M. A.; Wu, L.; Wilcox, G. D.; Mortimer, R. J.

    In: Transactions of the Institute of Metal Finishing, Vol. 93, No. 6, 2015, p. 332-341.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Haspel, D. M. ; Ashworth, M. A. ; Wu, L. ; Wilcox, G. D. ; Mortimer, R. J. / Tin whisker mitigation by means of a postelectroplating electrochemical oxidation treatment. In: Transactions of the Institute of Metal Finishing. 2015 ; Vol. 93, No. 6. pp. 332-341.
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    AB - There are very few studies that have investigated directly the effect of an oxide film on tin whisker growth, since the 'cracked oxide theory' was proposed by Tu in 1994 [K.-N. Tu: Phys. Rev., 1994, 49, (3), 2030-2034]. The current study has investigated the effect of an electrochemically produced oxide on tin whisker growth, for both Sn-Cu electrodeposits on Cu and pure Sn electrodeposits on brass. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been used to investigate the effect of the applied electrochemical oxidation potential on the oxide film thickness. Focused ion beam has been used to prepare cross sections from electrodeposited samples to investigate the influence of the electrochemically formed oxide film on deposit microstructure during long-term room temperature storage. The XPS studies show that the thickness of electrochemically formed oxide film is directly influenced by the applied potential and the total charge passed. Whisker growth studies show that the electrochemical oxidation treatment mitigates whisker growth for both Sn-Cu electrodeposits on Cu and pure Sn electrodeposits on brass. For Sn electrodeposits on brass, the electrochemically formed oxide greatly reduces both the formation of zinc oxide at the surface and the formation of intermetallic compounds, which results in the mitigation of tin whisker growth. For Sn-Cu electrodeposits on Cu, the electrochemically formed oxide has no apparent effect on intermetallic compound formation and acts simply as a physical barrier to hinder tin whisker growth.

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