Ti-based reference electrodes for inline implementation into Lithium-ion pouch cells

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    Despite growing demand for Li-ion batteries in the portable, industrial, and electric vehicle markets, the performance and safety monitoring of these state-of-the-art rechargeable cells is quite limited, relying on conventional full-cell measurements with in situ reference electrode technologies lagging behind in application. Herein, for the first time a long-term (>2000 h) stable Ti-based reference electrode is reported, and a new design enabling impact-free implementation into pouch. The methodology can also be used with other reference electrode materials. Various electrochemical characterization techniques are used to verify the usability and stability of the developed reference electrode, in turn enabling monitoring of individual electrode cycling performance and open circuit potential (OCP) via the galavanostatic intermittent titration technique (GITT) and differential capacity analysis. The findings offer a potential way of incorporating stable in situ reference electrodes into current and future generations of lithium-ion batteries.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article number2100602
    Pages (from-to)2100602
    Number of pages7
    JournalEnergy Technology
    Issue number10
    Early online date29 Jul 2021
    Publication statusPublished - Oct 2021

    Bibliographical note

    This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons
    Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in
    any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


    The research work presented in this article was financially supported by the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation project SeNSE (grant agreement No 875548) https://cordis.europa.eu/project/id/875548 and EPSRC project M‐RHEX (EP/R023581/1).


    • battery instrumentation
    • electrochemistry
    • lithium-ion batteries
    • pouch cells
    • reference electrodes
    • titanium

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Energy(all)


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