Thermodynamic Insights into the Oxidation Mechanisms of CrMnFeCoNi High-Entropy Alloy Using In Situ X-ray Diffraction

Muhammad Arshad, Saira Bano, Mohamed Amer, Vit Janik, Qamar Hayat, Yuze Huang, Dikai Guan, Mingwen Bai

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This paper utilizes in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) to investigate the high-temperature oxidation behaviour of CrMnFeCoNi high-entropy alloy (HEA). We found that (1) Mn is the major oxide-forming element in both vacuum and air environments, leading to the formation of non-protective oxides that deplete the bulk alloy of Mn; (2) no oxides like Cr2O3, Fe2O3, or Fe3O4 were observed during the high-temperature oxidation behaviour of CrMnFeCoNi, which contradicts some previous studies on the isothermal oxidation of CrMnFeCoNi HEA. We also analysed and compared the experimental results with thermodynamic calculations by using ThermoCalc version 2022b software following the CALPHAD method. ThermoCalc predicted spinel oxide in a vacuum environment, along with halite oxides observed in experimental results; also, in an atmospheric environment, it predicted only spinel, indicating the need for further investigation into factors to validate the thermodynamic predictions. Our study shows that the in situ HTXRD technique is a powerful tool to accurately identify time–temperature-dependent phase formation/transformation for studying oxidation behaviours and understanding oxidation mechanisms in HEAs.
Original languageEnglish
Article number5042
Number of pages20
Issue number14
Publication statusPublished - 17 Jul 2023

Bibliographical note

This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (


  • high-entropy alloy
  • oxidation
  • in situ X-ray diffraction
  • ThermoCalc
  • CALPHAD method


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