Using data of 1992–2012, this paper considers the spillover effects resulting from the increased flow of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) into the English Premier League focusing, in particular, on competitive balance, measures of football productivity and intrafootball spillovers. Results indicate that not only has the competitive balance in football been reduced but that overseas investment has impacted both upon the productivity of the clubs under foreign ownership and those which continue under domestic ownership. The empirical contribution of this paper indicates the relevance and importance of both spillover and FDI theory to that of the football industry.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Social Psychology
- Cultural Studies
- Sociology and Political Science