The societal effect: examining gender, religious, cultural and ethnic stereotypes upon female social housing residents in an entrepreneurial context

Sundas Hussain, Charlotte Carey

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaperpeer-review


Aim: Understanding entrepreneurship support as a key component to fostering entrepreneurial activity amongst female social housing residents, this paper forms part of further research carried out within Balsall Heath, Birmingham, UK. This paper examines how society can be a facilitator yet also a barrier for female social housing residents in forming the third step of a tailored entrepreneurship support program delivered by the housing association to its female housing residents. From this, a theoretical framework was developed through which two categories are derived, with several variables. Prior work: This paper is the fourth instalment in a series of studies, which builds upon previous work that examined the entrepreneurship discipline, amongst its subsects; female entrepreneurship, ethnic minority entrepreneurship and the long established, continual gender debate (Marlow 1997; Bruni et al., 2004; Ahl 2006; Jones 2010; 2012; Narayanasamy et al., 2011; Pathak et al. 2013). Overall it was found that entrepreneurship is fragmented and ununified (Keating and Higgins, 2016; Audretsch et al., 2007); demonstrated by the lack of an unambiguous definition of entrepreneurship i.e. Schumpeter (1934), Brazeal and Herbert (1999), Alvarez and Barney (2007), Short et al. (2010); Narayanasamy et al. (2011) all provide differing definitions of entrepreneurship. Baudaeu (1771) cited in Grebel et al. (2003), Schumpeter (1934), Palmer (1971), Schwartz (1976), Khan (1986), Bull and Willard (1993), Aldrich and Martinez (2001), Grebel et al. (2003), Nijkamp (2003), Rae, (2004a), Ahl (2006), Roomi et al. (2009) and Marlow and Swail (2014). Method: The analysis applies Corbin’s Constructivist grounded theory as it is recognised that research cannot be conducted without prejudgment, Charmaz (2008) emphasises that these preconceptions cannot be dismissed. Acknowledging this enabled open interpretation to take place throughout the study. The data was collected through traditional storytelling aided with semi-structured interviews and open-ended questions to discover new understandings of entrepreneurship (Rae, 2000) through natural enquiry; as people deliberate through narratives (Graham et al., 2015). Five data sets were used to inform the results of this paper: 1.) social-housing residents’ longitudinal interviews, 2.) a successful entrepreneur and housing association resident 3.) a UK housing association (and critical research partner) interviews and case study, 4.) Housing association stakeholder key-informants for example: local community organisations, and 5.) researcher observations collected throughout the study. Findings: The findings were formed based upon practice-based theory (Rae, 2004a) in the construction of an emerging model of the Societal Effect, which categorises the variables under two groups: facilitators of entrepreneurship and barriers to entrepreneurship. The model is derived from each dataset examining the role of each variable. Originality/value: This paper seeks to contribute to research on social housing residents, where there is little to none existing studies; as previous research on housing associations gives precedence to them as organisations only. The emerging model of the Societal Effect seeks to narrow this gap through the understanding of heterogenous societal impacts in enabling or hindering entrepreneurial activity upon female social housing residents. This paper’s main innovation addresses both micro level entrepreneurship, through the provision of the third step in entrepreneurship support provision with a specific focus on society, and meso level such as institutions for business support and changing ecosystems.
Original languageEnglish
Publication statusPublished - 2018
EventInstitute for Small Business and Entrepreneurship 41st Annual Conference: Research, policy and practice: Collaboration in a disparate world - Crowne Plaza, Birmingham, United Kingdom
Duration: 7 Nov 20188 Nov 2018
Conference number: 41


ConferenceInstitute for Small Business and Entrepreneurship 41st Annual Conference
Abbreviated titleISBE
Country/TerritoryUnited Kingdom
Internet address


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