The role of 'indirect' greenhouse gas emissions in tourism: assessing the hidden carbon impacts

Viachaslau Filimonav, Janet Dickinson, Derek Robbins, Maharaj Vijay Reddy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

60 Citations (Scopus)


Tourism is a noticeable contributor to global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Existing estimates of tourism’s carbon footprint are however incomplete as they fail to holistically assess the additional, ‘indirect’ carbon requirements. These arise from the non-use phases of a tourism product or service life cycle and can be further magnified by supply chain industries. Under-development of methods for carbon impact assessment in tourism is the primary reason for the omission of ‘indirect’ GHG emissions. This study develops a new approach for comprehensive appraisal of GHG emissions which incorporates and advances the methodological advantages of existing assessment techniques. It tests the applicability of this approach in tourism by conducting a holistic analysis of a standard holiday package to Portugal, based on the British tourism market. The new approach demonstrates the significance of the ‘indirect’ GHG emissions in the total carbon footprint from the holiday package, thus emphasising the necessity for more comprehensive future assessments.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)78-91
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Transportation Research (Part A)
Early online date23 Aug 2013
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2013
Externally publishedYes


  • Carbon footprint
  • GHG emissions
  • Tourism
  • Holiday package tour
  • Life cycle assessment
  • Indirect impact


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