The prismatic surface cell cooling coefficient: A novel cell design optimisation tool & thermal parameterization method for a 3D discretised electro-thermal equivalent-circuit model

Xiao Hua, Claas Heckel, Nils Modrow, Cheng Zhang, Alastair Hales, Justin Holloway, Anmol Jnawali, Shen Li, Yifei Yu, Melanie Loveridge, Paul Shearing, Yatish Patel, Monica Marinescu, Liang Tao, Gregory Offer

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    18 Citations (Scopus)
    126 Downloads (Pure)


    Thermal management of large format prismatic lithium ion batteries is challenging due to significant heat generation rates, long thermal ‘distances’ from the core to the surfaces and subsequent thermal gradients across the cell. The cell cooling coefficient (CCC) has been previously introduced to quantify how easy or hard it is to thermally manage a cell. Here we introduce its application to prismatic cells with a 90 Ah prismatic lithium iron phosphate cell with aluminium alloy casing. Further, a parameterised and discretised three-dimensional electro-thermal equivalent circuit model is developed in a commercially available software environment. The model is thermally and electrically validated experimentally against data including drive cycle noisy load and constant current CCC square wave load, with particular attention paid to the thermal boundary conditions. A quantitative study of the trade-off between cell energy density and surface CCC, and into casing material selection has been conducted here. The CCC enables comparison between cells, and the model enables a cell manufacturer to optimise the cell design and a systems developer to optimise the pack design. We recommend this is operated together holistically. This paper offers a cost-effective, time-efficient, convenient and quantitative way to achieve better and safer battery designs for multiple applications.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article number100099
    Early online date9 Jan 2021
    Publication statusPublished - Feb 2021

    Bibliographical note

    NOTICE: this is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in eTransportation. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in eTransportation, 7, (2021) DOI: 10.1016/j.etran.2020.100099

    © 2021, Elsevier. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International


    The authors would like to acknowledge the funding support received from Envision-AESC, Ltd. for Xiao Hua and funding from the Faraday Institution (; )EP/S003053/1, grant number FIRG003 for Gregory Offer. The work was also supported by Alessandro Picarelli from Claytex UK, Danny Montgomery from Thermal Hazard Technology UK and Yan Zhao from Imperial College London.


    • 3D discretised electro-thermal equivalent-circuit model
    • Cell design
    • Electric vehicle
    • Lithium iron phosphate
    • Lithium-ion battery
    • Prismatic surface cell cooling coefficient

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Automotive Engineering
    • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
    • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
    • Transportation


    Dive into the research topics of 'The prismatic surface cell cooling coefficient: A novel cell design optimisation tool & thermal parameterization method for a 3D discretised electro-thermal equivalent-circuit model'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

    Cite this