The Persistence of Self-injurious and Aggressive Behavior in Males with Fragile X Syndrome Over 8 Years: A Longitudinal Study of Prevalence and Predictive Risk Markers

Hayley Crawford, Efthalia Karakatsani, Gursharan Singla, Chris Oliver

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1 Citation (Scopus)
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Self-injurious and aggressive behaviors are common in fragile X syndrome (FXS). However, little is known about the persistence of these behaviors and associated risk markers. We established the prevalence and persistence of self-injurious and aggressive behaviors over eight years in males with FXS, and associations with risk markers. Results showed 77% and 69% persistence rates for self-injurious and aggressive behavior, respectively. Baseline levels of repetitive behavior predicted persistent self-injurious behavior. Chronological age, impulsivity and overactivity were associated with persistent aggressive behavior but only impulsivity predicted persistence. This is the first study to document the persistence of self-injurious and aggressive behavior in FXS over the medium to long term and to identify behavioral risk markers that might facilitate targeted early intervention.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2913-2922
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Issue number7
Early online date24 Apr 2019
Publication statusPublished - 15 Jul 2019


Bibliographical note

Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.


  • Aggression
  • Autism
  • Challenging behavior
  • Early intervention
  • Fragile X syndrome
  • Impulsivity
  • Repetitive behavior
  • Risk markers
  • Self-injurious behavior

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Developmental and Educational Psychology

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