The motivational factors of business venturing: Opportunity versus necessity? A gendered perspective on European countries

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Abstract

The motives behind self-employment and the differences between women and men are a hot topic in entrepreneurship debate. This paper empirically explores the interaction of three types of motivation on the entrepreneurial activities of women and men in 24 European countries: opportunity-driven motivation, necessity-driven motivation and mixed motivation. Employing a dynamic method, a panel data analysis in the timeframe from 2009 to 2012 is conducted. In this regard, the paper explores entrepreneurship at the two levels of established businesses (EBs) and total early-stage entrepreneurial activities (TEAs). The findings suggest that all three motivational dimensions positively influence females’ self-employment at both levels. Also, the findings reveal that, at the established business level, there is a significant and positive relationship between entrepreneurship by men and opportunity-seeking motivation.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)279-289
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Business Research
Volume113
Issue numberMay 2020
Early online date10 Dec 2019
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 2020

Keywords

  • Motivation
  • Necessity
  • Opportunity
  • Panel data analysis
  • Women entrepreneurship

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Marketing

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