The Influence of Fasting and Energy Restricting Diets on Blood Pressure in Humans: A Systematic Review and Meta‑Analysis

Hamed Kord Varkaneh, Ali Nazary-Vannani, Zeinab Mokhtari, Ammar Salehisahlabadi, Jamal Rahmani, Cain Clark, Somaye Fatahi, Fernando Zanghelini, Azita Hekmatdoost, Kahinde okunade, Parvin Mirmiran

    Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

    12 Citations (Scopus)
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    Abstract

    Introduction
    To the best of our knowledge, no comprehensive meta-analysis has been carried out to investigate the effect of different approaches of fasting and calorie restriction on blood pressure.

    Aim
    Thus, the present systematic review and meta-analysis was designed to examine the effect of fasting and energy restricting diets on blood pressure in adult subjects.

    Methods
    We searched PubMed/Medline, Scopus, the Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar up to June 2019. The clinical trials that examined the effects of fasting and energy restricting diets on Blood Pressure was identified using MESH and non-MESH terms.

    Results
    23 studies, including a total of 1397 participants, reported SBP and DBP as an outcome measure. Overall results from the random-effects model indicated that fasting and energy restricting administration elicited significant changes in SBP (weight mean difference (WMD): − 1.88 mmHg, 95% CI − 2.50, − 1.25) and DBP (WMD − 1.32 mmHg, 95% CI − 1.81, − 0.84, p = 0.000). Subgroup analyses displayed that intervention duration ≤ 12 weeks more effectively reduced SBP (WMD: -3.26 mmHg) and DBP (WMD − 1.32 mmHg). In addition, these analyses showed that fasting regimens (WMD − 3.26 mmHg) more effectively reduced SBP than energy restricting diets (WMD − 1.09 mmHg).

    Conclusion
    The principal finding of this study was that fasting and energy restricting diets elicited, overall, significant reductions in SBP and DBP. Subsequent subgroup analyses revealed that intervention duration ≤ 12 weeks and fasting regimens more effectively reduced SBP and DBP.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)271-280
    Number of pages10
    JournalHigh Blood Pressure & Cardiovascular Prevention
    Volume27
    Issue number4
    Early online date20 Jun 2020
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2020

    Bibliographical note

    The final publication is available at Springer via http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40292-020-00391-0

    Copyright © and Moral Rights are retained by the author(s) and/ or other copyright owners. A copy can be downloaded for personal non-commercial research or study, without prior permission or charge. This item cannot be reproduced or quoted extensively from without first obtaining permission in writing from the copyright holder(s). The content must not be changed in any way or sold commercially in any format or medium without the formal permission of the copyright holders.

    Keywords

    • Meta-analysis
    • Blood pressure
    • Fastng
    • Energy restricting

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