The Influence of Fasting and Energy Restricting Diets on Blood Pressure in Humans: A Systematic Review and Meta‑Analysis

Hamed Kord Varkaneh, Ali Nazary-Vannani, Zeinab Mokhtari, Ammar Salehisahlabadi, Jamal Rahmani, Cain Clark, Somaye Fatahi, Fernando Zanghelini, Azita Hekmatdoost, Kahinde okunade, Parvin Mirmiran

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Abstract

Introduction
To the best of our knowledge, no comprehensive meta-analysis has been carried out to investigate the effect of different approaches of fasting and calorie restriction on blood pressure.

Aim
Thus, the present systematic review and meta-analysis was designed to examine the effect of fasting and energy restricting diets on blood pressure in adult subjects.

Methods
We searched PubMed/Medline, Scopus, the Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar up to June 2019. The clinical trials that examined the effects of fasting and energy restricting diets on Blood Pressure was identified using MESH and non-MESH terms.

Results
23 studies, including a total of 1397 participants, reported SBP and DBP as an outcome measure. Overall results from the random-effects model indicated that fasting and energy restricting administration elicited significant changes in SBP (weight mean difference (WMD): − 1.88 mmHg, 95% CI − 2.50, − 1.25) and DBP (WMD − 1.32 mmHg, 95% CI − 1.81, − 0.84, p = 0.000). Subgroup analyses displayed that intervention duration ≤ 12 weeks more effectively reduced SBP (WMD: -3.26 mmHg) and DBP (WMD − 1.32 mmHg). In addition, these analyses showed that fasting regimens (WMD − 3.26 mmHg) more effectively reduced SBP than energy restricting diets (WMD − 1.09 mmHg).

Conclusion
The principal finding of this study was that fasting and energy restricting diets elicited, overall, significant reductions in SBP and DBP. Subsequent subgroup analyses revealed that intervention duration ≤ 12 weeks and fasting regimens more effectively reduced SBP and DBP.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)271-280
Number of pages10
JournalHigh Blood Pressure & Cardiovascular Prevention
Volume27
Issue number4
Early online date20 Jun 2020
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2020

Keywords

  • Meta-analysis
  • Blood pressure
  • Fastng
  • Energy restricting

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