The influence of physico-chemical properties of fly ash and CKD on strength generation of high-volume fly ash concrete

M. Sadique, Eoin Coakley

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Citations (Scopus)
46 Downloads (Pure)


This paper presents a laboratory study on the use of cement kiln dust (CKD) as an activator of fly ash when used in high volumes within concrete. Two separate batches of fly ash and CKD were tested to assess the effect of material variability on binder properties and compressive strength gain. Ternary blends of fly ash (55–65%), CEM 1 (30%) and CKD (5–15%) and quaternary blends that included moderate amounts (15–18·5%) of ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS) were prepared. Physico-chemical properties of individual binder materials were compared and concrete compressive strength was measured at 2 d, 7 d and 28 d. Ternary blends of 60% fly ash, 30% cement and 10% CKD resulted in moderate early age and 28 d strength and addition of GGBS enhanced strength significantly due to increased ettringite formation. Particle fineness, water demand and loss on ignition content of fly ash, and calcium oxide and sulfur trioxide content of CKD were found to be the main physico-chemical factors that influence compressive strength gain.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)595-605
JournalAdvances in Cement Research
Issue number9
Early online date16 Sep 2016
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2016



  • ash utilisation
  • chemical properties
  • compressive strength

Cite this