This study analyzed the latest four PISA surveys, 2009, 2012, 2015, and 2018, to explore the association between students’ ICT-related use and math and science performance. Using ICT Engagement Theory as a theoretical framework and a three-level hierarchical linear modeling approach, while controlling for confounding effects, ICT-related independent variables of interest were added to the models at the student, school, and country levels. The series of models revealed that, in general, an increase in ICT availability and ICT use both inside and outside school had a negative association with learning outcomes, while students’ positive attitude toward ICT demonstrated a strong positive relationship. However, students’ perceived autonomy related to ICT use had the strongest association with academic performance, which is consistent with the changing nature of the modern learning environments. Findings revealed that virtually all forms of student ICT use, both inside and outside of school and whether subject related or not, had no substantive positive relationship with student performance in math or science. Conversely, higher student attitude toward, confidence in, belief in utility of, and autonomous use of ICT was associated with higher math and science performance for each of the four years of the study. Incidentally, we also found that while country GDP per capita had no consistent association with student performance, a school’s provision of extra-curricula activities did. Recommendations for educational leaders, teachers, and parents are offered.
|Number of pages||26|
|Journal||Large-scale Assessments in Education|
|Publication status||Published - 2 Aug 2022|
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- Educational technology
- Extra-curricular activities
- ICT use
- ICT-related attitudes
- Math and science performance
- Multilevel analysis
ASJC Scopus subject areas