The impact of entrepreneurship education in higher education: A systematic review and research agenda

Ghulam Nabi, Francisco Liñán, Alain Fayolle, Norris Krueger, Andreas Walmsley

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

841 Citations (Scopus)


Using a teaching model framework, we systematically review empirical evidence on the impact of entrepreneurship education (EE) in higher education on a range of entrepreneurial outcomes, analyzing 159 published articles from 2004 to 2016. The teaching model framework allows us for the first time to start rigorously examining relationships between pedagogical methods and specific outcomes. Reconfirming past reviews and meta-analyses, we find that EE impact research still predominantly focuses on short-term and subjective outcome measures and tends to severely underdescribe the actual pedagogies being tested. Moreover, we use our review to provide an up-to-date and empirically rooted call for less obvious, yet greatly promising, new or underemphasized directions for future research on the impact of university-based entrepreneurship education. This includes, for example, the use of novel impact indicators related to emotion and mind-set, focus on the impact indicators related to the intention-to-behavior transition, and exploring the reasons for some contradictory findings in impact studies including person-, context-, and pedagogical model-specific moderators.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)277-299
Number of pages23
JournalAcademy of Management Learning & Education
Issue number2
Early online date5 Apr 2017
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2017
Externally publishedYes


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