The heating triangle: A quantitative review of self-heating methods for lithium-ion batteries at low temperatures

Haijun Ruan, Jorge Varela Barreras, Marco Steinhardt, Andreas Jossen, Gregory J. Offer, Billy Wu

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)
9 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

Lithium-ion batteries at low temperatures have slow recharge times alongside reduced available power and energy. Battery heating is a viable way to address this issue, and self-heating techniques are appealing due to acceptable efficiency and speed. However, there are a lack of studies quantitatively comparing self-heating methods rather than qualitatively, because of the existence of many different batteries with varied heating parameters. In this work, we review the current state-of-the-art self-heating methods and propose the heating triangle as a new quantitative indicator for comparing self-heating methods, towards identifying/developing effective heating approaches. We define the heating triangle which considers three fundamental metrics: the specific heating rate (°C·g·J−1), coefficient of performance (COP) (−), and specific temperature difference (°C·hr), enabling a quantitative assessment of self-heating methods using data reported in the literature. Our analysis demonstrates that very similar metrics are observed for the same type of self-heating method, irrespective of the study case, supporting the universality of the proposed indicator. With the comparison insights, we identify research gaps and new avenues for developing advanced self-heating methods. This work demonstrates the value of the proposed heating triangle as a standardised approach to compare heating methods and drive innovation.

Original languageEnglish
Article number233484
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of Power Sources
Volume581
Early online date22 Aug 2023
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15 Oct 2023

Bibliographical note

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/),
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium,
provided the original work is properly cited.

Funder

This work was kindly supported by the Faraday Institution's Industrial Fellowship ( FIIF-013 ), the EPSRC Impact Acceleration Award ( EP/X52556X/1 ), the EPSRC Faraday Institution's Multi-Scale Modelling Project ( EP/S003053/1 , grant number FIRG003 ), the EPSRC Joint UK-India Clean Energy Centre (JUICE) ( EP/P003605/1 ), the EPSRC Integrated Development of Low-Carbon Energy Systems (IDLES) project ( EP/R045518/1 ), and by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi) ( 03 ET6153C iMoBatt ).

Keywords

  • lithium-ion battery
  • Low temperature
  • Metrics
  • Preheating
  • Self-heating
  • Thermal management

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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