The global, regional, and national burden of adult lip, oral, and pharyngeal cancer in 204 countries and territories: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019

Amanda Ramos da Cunha, Kelly Compton, Rixing Xu, Rashmi Mishra, Mark Thomas Drangsholt, Jose Leopoldo Ferreira Antunes, Alexander R. Kerr, Alistair R. Acheson, Dan Lu, Lindsey E. Wallace, Jonathan M. Kocarnik, Weijia Fu, Frances E. Dean, Alyssa Pennini, Hannah Jacqueline Henrikson, Tahiya Alam, Emad Ababneh, Sherief Abd-Elsalam, Meriem Abdoun, Hassan AbidiHiwa Abubaker Ali, Eman Abu-Gharbieh, Tigist Demssew Adane, Isaac Yeboah Addo, Aqeel Ahmad, Sajjad Ahmad, Tarik Ahmed Rashid, Maxwell Akonde, Hanadi Al Hamad, Fares Alahdab, Yousef Alimohamadi, Vahid Alipour, Sadeq Ali Al-Maweri, Ubai Alsharif, Alireza Ansari-Moghaddam, Sumadi Lukman Anwar, Anayochukwu Edward Anyasodor, Jalal Arabloo, Aleksandr Y. Aravkin, Raphael Taiwo Aruleba, Malke Asaad, Tahira Ashraf, Seyyed Shamsadin Athari, Sameh Attia, Sina Azadnajafabad, Mohammadreza Azangou-Khyavy, Muhammad Badar, Nayereh Baghcheghi, Maciej Banach, Mainak Bardhan, Hiba Jawdat Barqawi, Nasir Z. Bashir, Azadeh Bashiri, Habib Benzian, Eduardo Bernabe, Devidas S. Bhagat, Vijayalakshmi S. Bhojaraja, Tone Bjørge, Souad Bouaoud, Dejana Braithwaite, Nikolay Ivanovich Briko, Daniela Calina, Giulia Carreras, Promit Ananyo Chakraborty, Vijay Kumar Chattu, Akhilanand Chaurasia, Meng Xuan Chen, William C. S. Cho, Dinh-Toi Chu, Isaac Sunday Chukwu, Eunice Chung, Natália Cruz-Martins, Omid Dadras, Xiaochen Dai, Lalit Dandona, Rakhi Dandona, Parnaz Daneshpajouhnejad, Reza Darvishi Cheshmeh Soltani, Aso Mohammad Darwesh, Sisay Abebe Debela, Meseret Derbew Molla, Fikadu Nugusu Dessalegn, Mostafa Dianati-Nasab, Lankamo Ena Digesa, Shilpi Gupta Dixit, Abhinav Dixit, Shirin Djalalinia, Iman El Sayed, Maha El Tantawi, Daniel Berhanie Enyew, Daniel Asfaw Erku, Rana Ezzeddini, Adeniyi Francis Fagbamigbe, Luca Falzone, Getahun Fetensa, Takeshi Fukumoto, Piyada Gaewkhiew, Silvano Gallus, Mesfin Gebrehiwot, Ahmad Ghashghaee, Paramjit Singh Gill, Mahaveer Golechha, Pouya Goleij, Ricardo Santiago Gomez, Giuseppe Gorini, Andre Luiz Sena Guimaraes, Bhawna Gupta, Sapna Gupta, Veer Bala Gupta, Vivek Kumar Gupta, Arvin Haj-Mirzaian, Esam S. Halboub, Rabih Halwani, Asif Hanif, Ninuk Hariyani, Mehdi Harorani, Hamidreza Hasani, Abbas M. Hassan, Soheil Hassanipour, Mohammed Bheser Hassen, Simon I. Hay, Khezar Hayat, Brenda Yuliana Herrera-Serna, Ramesh Holla, Nobuyuki Horita, Mehdi Hosseinzadeh, Salman Hussain, Olayinka Stephen Ilesanmi, Irena M. Ilic, Milena D. Ilic, Gaetano Isola, Abhishek Jaiswal, Chinmay T. Jani, Tahereh Javaheri, Umesh Jayarajah, Shubha Jayaram, Nitin Joseph, Vidya Kadashetti, Eswar Kandaswamy, Shama D. Karanth, Ibraheem M. Karaye, Joonas H. Kauppila, Harkiran Kaur, Mohammad Keykhaei, Yousef Saleh Khader, Himanshu Khajuria, Javad Khanali, Mahalaqua Nazli Khatib, Hamid Reza Khayat Kashani, Mohammad Amin Khazeei Tabari, Min Seo Kim, Farzad Kompani, Hamid Reza Koohestani, G. Anil Kumar, Om P. Kurmi, Carlo La Vecchia, Dharmesh Kumar Lal, Iván Landires, Savita Lasrado, Caterina Ledda, Yo Han Lee, Massimo Libra, Stephen S. Lim, Stefan Listl, Platon D. Lopukhov, Ahmad R. Mafi, Rashidul Alam Mahumud, Ahmad Azam Malik, Manu Raj Mathur, Sazan Qadir Maulud, Jitendra Kumar Meena, Entezar Mehrabi Nasab, Tomislav Mestrovic, Reza Mirfakhraie, Awoke Misganaw, Sanjeev Misra, Prasanna Mithra, Yousef Mohammad, Mokhtar Mohammadi, Esmaeil Mohammadi, Ali H. Mokdad, Mohammad Ali Moni, Paula Moraga, Shane Douglas Morrison, Hamid Reza Mozaffari, Sumaira Mubarik, Christopher J. L. Murray, Tapas Sadasivan Nair, Sreenivas Narasimha Swamy, Aparna Ichalangod Narayana, Hasan Nassereldine, Zuhair S. Natto, Biswa Prakash Nayak, Serban Mircea Negru, Haruna Asura Nggada, Hasti Nouraei, Virginia Nuñez-Samudio, Bogdan Oancea, Andrew T. Olagunju, Ahmed Omar Bali, Alicia Padron-Monedero, Jagadish Rao Padubidri, Anamika Pandey, Shahina Pardhan, Jay Patel, Raffaele Pezzani, Zahra Zahid Piracha, Navid Rabiee, Venkatraman Radhakrishnan, Raghu Anekal Radhakrishnan, Amir Masoud Rahmani, Vahid Rahmanian, Chythra R. Rao, Sowmya J. Rao, Goura Kishor Rath, David Laith Rawaf, Salman Rawaf, Reza Rawassizadeh, Mohammad Sadegh Razeghinia, Nazila Rezaei, Negar Rezaei, Nima Rezaei, Aziz Rezapour, Abanoub Riad, Thomas J. Roberts, Esperanza Romero-Rodríguez, Gholamreza Roshandel, Manjula S., Chandan S. N., Basema Saddik, Mohammad Reza Saeb, Umar Saeed, Mohsen Safaei, Maryam Sahebazzamani, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Amir Salek Farrokhi, Abdallah M. Samy, Milena M. Santric-Milicevic, Brijesh Sathian, Maheswar Satpathy, Mario Šekerija, Subramanian Senthilkumaran, Allen Seylani, Omid Shafaat, Hamid R. Shahsavari, Erfan Shamsoddin, Mequannent Melaku Sharew, Javad Sharifi-Rad, Jeevan K. Shetty, K. M. Shivakumar, Parnian Shobeiri, Seyed Afshin Shorofi, Sunil Shrestha, Sudeep K. Siddappa Malleshappa, Paramdeep Singh, Jasvinder A. Singh, Garima Singh, Dhirendra Narain Sinha, Yonatan Solomon, Muhammad Suleman, Rizwan Suliankatchi Abdulkader, Yasaman Taheri Abkenar, Iman M. Talaat, Ker-Kan Tan, Abdelghani Tbakhi, Arulmani Thiyagarajan, Amir Tiyuri, Marcos Roberto Tovani-Palone, Bhaskaran Unnikrishnan, Bay Vo, Simona Ruxandra Volovat, Cong Wang, Ronny Westerman, Nuwan Darshana Wickramasinghe, Hong Xiao, Chuanhua Yu, Deniz Yuce, Ismaeel Yunusa, Vesna Zadnik, Iman Zare, Zhi-Jiang Zhang, Mohammad Zoladl, Lisa M. Force, Fernando N. Hugo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Importance Lip, oral, and pharyngeal cancers are important contributors to cancer burden worldwide, and a comprehensive evaluation of their burden globally, regionally, and nationally is crucial for effective policy planning.

Objective To analyze the total and risk-attributable burden of lip and oral cavity cancer (LOC) and other pharyngeal cancer (OPC) for 204 countries and territories and by Socio-demographic Index (SDI) using 2019 Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors (GBD) Study estimates.

Evidence Review The incidence, mortality, and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) due to LOC and OPC from 1990 to 2019 were estimated using GBD 2019 methods. The GBD 2019 comparative risk assessment framework was used to estimate the proportion of deaths and DALYs for LOC and OPC attributable to smoking, tobacco, and alcohol consumption in 2019.

Findings In 2019, 370 000 (95% uncertainty interval [UI], 338 000-401 000) cases and 199 000 (95% UI, 181 000-217 000) deaths for LOC and 167 000 (95% UI, 153 000-180 000) cases and 114 000 (95% UI, 103 000-126 000) deaths for OPC were estimated to occur globally, contributing 5.5 million (95% UI, 5.0-6.0 million) and 3.2 million (95% UI, 2.9-3.6 million) DALYs, respectively. From 1990 to 2019, low-middle and low SDI regions consistently showed the highest age-standardized mortality rates due to LOC and OPC, while the high SDI strata exhibited age-standardized incidence rates decreasing for LOC and increasing for OPC. Globally in 2019, smoking had the greatest contribution to risk-attributable OPC deaths for both sexes (55.8% [95% UI, 49.2%-62.0%] of all OPC deaths in male individuals and 17.4% [95% UI, 13.8%-21.2%] of all OPC deaths in female individuals). Smoking and alcohol both contributed to substantial LOC deaths globally among male individuals (42.3% [95% UI, 35.2%-48.6%] and 40.2% [95% UI, 33.3%-46.8%] of all risk-attributable cancer deaths, respectively), while chewing tobacco contributed to the greatest attributable LOC deaths among female individuals (27.6% [95% UI, 21.5%-33.8%]), driven by high risk-attributable burden in South and Southeast Asia.

Conclusions and Relevance In this systematic analysis, disparities in LOC and OPC burden existed across the SDI spectrum, and a considerable percentage of burden was attributable to tobacco and alcohol use. These estimates can contribute to an understanding of the distribution and disparities in LOC and OPC burden globally and support cancer control planning efforts.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1401-1416
JournalJAMA Oncology
Volume9
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 7 Sept 2023

Bibliographical note

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the CC-BY License. © 2023 GBD 2019 Lip, Oral, and Pharyngeal Cancer Collaborators. JAMA Oncology.

Funder

Financial support for Global Burden of Disease research was provided by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

Keywords

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research

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