This study investigates the use of physical movement to cause joint and bone loads that stimulate bone growth in order to reduce the adverse effects of osteoporosis. It has been established that stresses in bones in excess of the osteogenic threshold will stimulate bone growth; however, protocols for the generation of these stresses had not been established. Two trial movements were examined in the study: the plié and a movement requiring the subject to move a leg sequentially to 45° displaced positions - the star excursion balance test. Using inverse dynamics and an optimisation approach, the loads in the muscles crossing the hip and knee joints and the corresponding joint contact forces were calculated. It was found that the osteogenic threshold was exceeded in both these trials identifying them as suitable exercises in the maintenance of bone health. In the order of increasing bone load at the hip, and hence increasing bone growth stimulation, are the following demi plié, star excursion balance test with maximum reach criterion, grande plié and star excursion balance test with maximum speed criterion. In the order of increasing bone load at the knee are demi plié, grande plié, star excursion balance test with maximum reach criterion and star excursion balance test with maximum speed criterion. However, due to the high loads encountered, these exercises are not recommended for subjects with advanced osteoporosis although the boundary between therapeutic bone loading leading to increase in bone mineral density and loads capable of causing fracture is unclear.
|Number of pages||8|
|Journal||Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine|
|Publication status||Published - Jun 2013|
- Bone health
- Physical activity
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Mechanical Engineering