The enhancement of biomimetic apatite coatings on a nylon 6,6 biopolymer by means of KrF excimer laser surface treatment

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Abstract

Simulated body fluid (SBF) has been widely used as a screening method in determining the bioactivity of numerous biomaterials. Owed to the insufficient surface properties of polymers it has been seen to be of great advantage to modify the surfaces of these materials to allow the polymer to become more biomimetic. This paper discusses for the first time the results and differences between using a KrF excimer laser for large area processing and surface patterning of a nylon 6,6 biopolymer. Both 50 and 100 μm dimensioned trench and hatch patterns were induced at a fluence of 858 mJ/cm2. The large area irradiative processing covered an area of 2.76 cm2, which was almost 57% of the entire sample surface, with fluencies ranging from 36 to 90 mJ/cm2. White light interferometry (WLI) was employed to determine 3-D continuous axonometric and profile extractions for each sample and found that the surface was significantly modified for the patterned samples with the average roughness, Sa, increasing by up to 1.5 μm when compared to the as-received sample. The large area processed samples were found to have Sa values equivalent to that of the as-received sample of around 0.1 μm. This was significant as a sessile drop device was used to find that the contact angle decreased by up to 20° for the large area processed samples. As the surface topography was negligible compared to the as-received sample this can be explained by the possibility of surface chemistry or surface charge being the dominant parameter. However, the increase in contact angle can be explained through a change in wetting regime on account of the surface patterning in which both Wenzel and Cassie-Baxter regimes are present over the liquid-surface interface. After 14 days of immersion in SBF each sample was analysed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) to ascertain the presence of apatite crystals formed on the as-received and excimer laser treated surfaces of the nylon 6,6. An increase in mass of up to +0.03 g indicated that the laser processed samples gave rise to more accelerated formation of apatite crystals in comparison to the as-received sample. This suggests that through excimer laser surface treatment osteoblast cell adhesion and proliferation can be enhanced.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)95-114
Number of pages20
JournalLasers in Engineering
Volume21
Issue number1-2
Publication statusPublished - 22 Jun 2011
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Nylon (trademark)
biopolymers
Biopolymers
biomimetics
Apatite
Biomimetics
Excimer lasers
apatites
surface treatment
excimer lasers
Surface treatment
coatings
Coatings
augmentation
Body fluids
Contact angle
body fluids
Hatches
Crystals
Energy dispersive X ray analysis

Keywords

  • Bioactivity
  • Biopolymer
  • Contact angle
  • KrF excimer laser
  • Nylon 6,6
  • Simulated body fluid (SBF)
  • Surface free energy
  • Wettability characteristics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

Cite this

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title = "The enhancement of biomimetic apatite coatings on a nylon 6,6 biopolymer by means of KrF excimer laser surface treatment",
abstract = "Simulated body fluid (SBF) has been widely used as a screening method in determining the bioactivity of numerous biomaterials. Owed to the insufficient surface properties of polymers it has been seen to be of great advantage to modify the surfaces of these materials to allow the polymer to become more biomimetic. This paper discusses for the first time the results and differences between using a KrF excimer laser for large area processing and surface patterning of a nylon 6,6 biopolymer. Both 50 and 100 μm dimensioned trench and hatch patterns were induced at a fluence of 858 mJ/cm2. The large area irradiative processing covered an area of 2.76 cm2, which was almost 57{\%} of the entire sample surface, with fluencies ranging from 36 to 90 mJ/cm2. White light interferometry (WLI) was employed to determine 3-D continuous axonometric and profile extractions for each sample and found that the surface was significantly modified for the patterned samples with the average roughness, Sa, increasing by up to 1.5 μm when compared to the as-received sample. The large area processed samples were found to have Sa values equivalent to that of the as-received sample of around 0.1 μm. This was significant as a sessile drop device was used to find that the contact angle decreased by up to 20° for the large area processed samples. As the surface topography was negligible compared to the as-received sample this can be explained by the possibility of surface chemistry or surface charge being the dominant parameter. However, the increase in contact angle can be explained through a change in wetting regime on account of the surface patterning in which both Wenzel and Cassie-Baxter regimes are present over the liquid-surface interface. After 14 days of immersion in SBF each sample was analysed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) to ascertain the presence of apatite crystals formed on the as-received and excimer laser treated surfaces of the nylon 6,6. An increase in mass of up to +0.03 g indicated that the laser processed samples gave rise to more accelerated formation of apatite crystals in comparison to the as-received sample. This suggests that through excimer laser surface treatment osteoblast cell adhesion and proliferation can be enhanced.",
keywords = "Bioactivity, Biopolymer, Contact angle, KrF excimer laser, Nylon 6,6, Simulated body fluid (SBF), Surface free energy, Wettability characteristics",
author = "Waugh, {D. G.} and J. Lawrence",
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T1 - The enhancement of biomimetic apatite coatings on a nylon 6,6 biopolymer by means of KrF excimer laser surface treatment

AU - Waugh, D. G.

AU - Lawrence, J.

PY - 2011/6/22

Y1 - 2011/6/22

N2 - Simulated body fluid (SBF) has been widely used as a screening method in determining the bioactivity of numerous biomaterials. Owed to the insufficient surface properties of polymers it has been seen to be of great advantage to modify the surfaces of these materials to allow the polymer to become more biomimetic. This paper discusses for the first time the results and differences between using a KrF excimer laser for large area processing and surface patterning of a nylon 6,6 biopolymer. Both 50 and 100 μm dimensioned trench and hatch patterns were induced at a fluence of 858 mJ/cm2. The large area irradiative processing covered an area of 2.76 cm2, which was almost 57% of the entire sample surface, with fluencies ranging from 36 to 90 mJ/cm2. White light interferometry (WLI) was employed to determine 3-D continuous axonometric and profile extractions for each sample and found that the surface was significantly modified for the patterned samples with the average roughness, Sa, increasing by up to 1.5 μm when compared to the as-received sample. The large area processed samples were found to have Sa values equivalent to that of the as-received sample of around 0.1 μm. This was significant as a sessile drop device was used to find that the contact angle decreased by up to 20° for the large area processed samples. As the surface topography was negligible compared to the as-received sample this can be explained by the possibility of surface chemistry or surface charge being the dominant parameter. However, the increase in contact angle can be explained through a change in wetting regime on account of the surface patterning in which both Wenzel and Cassie-Baxter regimes are present over the liquid-surface interface. After 14 days of immersion in SBF each sample was analysed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) to ascertain the presence of apatite crystals formed on the as-received and excimer laser treated surfaces of the nylon 6,6. An increase in mass of up to +0.03 g indicated that the laser processed samples gave rise to more accelerated formation of apatite crystals in comparison to the as-received sample. This suggests that through excimer laser surface treatment osteoblast cell adhesion and proliferation can be enhanced.

AB - Simulated body fluid (SBF) has been widely used as a screening method in determining the bioactivity of numerous biomaterials. Owed to the insufficient surface properties of polymers it has been seen to be of great advantage to modify the surfaces of these materials to allow the polymer to become more biomimetic. This paper discusses for the first time the results and differences between using a KrF excimer laser for large area processing and surface patterning of a nylon 6,6 biopolymer. Both 50 and 100 μm dimensioned trench and hatch patterns were induced at a fluence of 858 mJ/cm2. The large area irradiative processing covered an area of 2.76 cm2, which was almost 57% of the entire sample surface, with fluencies ranging from 36 to 90 mJ/cm2. White light interferometry (WLI) was employed to determine 3-D continuous axonometric and profile extractions for each sample and found that the surface was significantly modified for the patterned samples with the average roughness, Sa, increasing by up to 1.5 μm when compared to the as-received sample. The large area processed samples were found to have Sa values equivalent to that of the as-received sample of around 0.1 μm. This was significant as a sessile drop device was used to find that the contact angle decreased by up to 20° for the large area processed samples. As the surface topography was negligible compared to the as-received sample this can be explained by the possibility of surface chemistry or surface charge being the dominant parameter. However, the increase in contact angle can be explained through a change in wetting regime on account of the surface patterning in which both Wenzel and Cassie-Baxter regimes are present over the liquid-surface interface. After 14 days of immersion in SBF each sample was analysed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) to ascertain the presence of apatite crystals formed on the as-received and excimer laser treated surfaces of the nylon 6,6. An increase in mass of up to +0.03 g indicated that the laser processed samples gave rise to more accelerated formation of apatite crystals in comparison to the as-received sample. This suggests that through excimer laser surface treatment osteoblast cell adhesion and proliferation can be enhanced.

KW - Bioactivity

KW - Biopolymer

KW - Contact angle

KW - KrF excimer laser

KW - Nylon 6,6

KW - Simulated body fluid (SBF)

KW - Surface free energy

KW - Wettability characteristics

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M3 - Article

VL - 21

SP - 95

EP - 114

JO - Lasers in Engineering

JF - Lasers in Engineering

SN - 0898-1507

IS - 1-2

ER -