The effects of some phosphorus-containing fire retardants on the properties of glass fibre-reinforced composite laminates made from blends of unsaturated polyester and phenolic resins

Latha Krishnan, Baljinder K. Kandola, John R. Ebdon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)
21 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

This study investigated the effects of phosphorus fire retardants (FRs) in matrices from co-cured blends of an unsaturated polyester (UP) with inherently fire-retardant phenolic resoles (PH) on the mechanical and flammability properties of resultant glass fibre-reinforced composites. Three different phenolic resoles with UP have been used: (i) an ethanol soluble (PH-S), (ii) an epoxy-functionalised (PH-Ep), and (iii) an allyl-functionalised resin (PH-Al) with two different phosphorus FRs: resorcinol bis (diphenyl phosphate) (RDP) and 9,10-dihydro-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenanthrene-10-oxide (DOPO). The flammabilities of the resultant composites were evaluated using cone calorimetry and the UL-94 test. Cone calorimetric results showed reductions in peak heat release rate (PHRR) and total heat released (THR) as expected compared to those of UP and respective UP/PH composite laminates without FRs. UL-94 tests results showed that while all composites had HB rating, FR containing samples self-extinguished after removal of the flame. The mechanical properties of the composites were evaluated using flexural, tensile and impact tests. All FRs reduced the mechanical properties, and the reduction in mechanical properties was more severe in UP/PH-S (least compatible blends) composites with FRs than in UP/PH-Al (most compatible blends) composites with FRs. Amongst the different composites, those from UP/PH-Al with DOPO showed the best fire retardancy with little deterioration of mechanical performance.

Original languageEnglish
Article number258
JournalJournal of Composites Science
Volume5
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 28 Sept 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Funding: This research was funded by Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council, United Kingdom, grant number EP/H020675/1.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Keywords

  • Blends
  • Fire properties
  • Glass fibre-reinforced composite (GFRC)
  • Mechanical properties
  • Phenolic resoles
  • Phosphorus-based fire retardants (FRs)
  • Unsaturated polyester

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Engineering (miscellaneous)

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