The effects of oral sodium bicarbonate supplementation on anthropometric measures in patients with chronic kidney disease: A systematic review and meta‐analysis of randomized clinical trials

Fatemeh Navab, Mohammad Hossein Rouhani, Firouzeh Moeinzadeh, Cain C. T. Clark, Rahele Ziaei

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Abstract

Metabolic acidosis (MA) may play a key role in the pathogenesis of protein‐energy wasting (PEW) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). To present a comprehensive synthesis of the effect of oral sodium bicarbonate (SB) supplementation on anthropometric measures in patients with CKD, a systematic review was undertaken in PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science, Cochrane CENTRAL, and Google Scholar, of relevant articles published prior to September 2022. The summary statistics of effect size, nonstandardized weighted mean difference (WMD), and 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to compare the effects of SB supplementation on anthropometric parameters vs. control group. To detect probable sources of heterogeneity, a series of predefined subgroup analyses were conducted. In total, 17 studies with 21 treatment arms, including 2203 participants (1149 cases, 1054 controls), met our inclusion criteria and were included in the meta‐analysis. SB supplementation had no significant effect on body weight (BW), midarm muscle circumference (MAMC), or lean body mass (LBM) in patients with CKD. There was a significant increase in body mass index (BMI) (MD: 0.59 kg/m2, 95% CI: 0.25 to 0.93, p = 0.001) after SB supplementation in the overall analysis. In subgroup analysis, LBM was increased in studies that were ≥ 24‐week duration (MD: 1.81 kg, 95% CI: 0.81 to 2.81) and in participants with BMI lower than 27 kg/m2 (MD: 1.81 mg/L, 95% CI: 0.81 to 2.81). SB supplementation may yield increases in BMI in predialysis CKD patients. However, our findings did not support the beneficial effects of SB supplementation on other anthropometric outcomes. There is an evident need for long‐term high‐quality interventions to confirm these findings.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6749-6760
Number of pages12
JournalFood Science and Nutrition
Volume11
Issue number11
Early online date7 Sept 2023
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2023

Bibliographical note

© 2023 The Authors. Food Science & Nutrition published by Wiley Periodicals LLC.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/),
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium,
provided the original work is properly cited.

Funder

Vice-Chancellor for Research, Isfahan
University of Medical Sciences.

Keywords

  • chronic kidney disease
  • muscle wasting
  • metabolic acidosis
  • anthropometric
  • sodium bicarbonate

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