The Effectiveness of Playful Augmented Reality Media for Teaching Early-Primary Students

Muhibuddin Fadhli, Deka Dyah Utami, Betaria Nae Hastuti, Rochmat Aldy Purnomo, Dominic Mahon, Alex Masters

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference proceedingpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Hybrid learning has become the only solution to ensure the learning process still occurs in place of traditional classroom activities during the Covid-19 pandemic. Following this condition, the phenomenon of "Zoom Fatigue" has emerged. Some of the symptoms reported are decreased learning motivation, low attention, and reduced responses. Thus, a refresher process, including the use of new playful and frugal learning media is necessary for varying children's learning activities. A learning intervention was designed to teach anatomy playfully as part of a biology curriculum. The Augmented Reality technology used in this research is a Humanoid 4D+ mobile application with flashcards, developed by Octagon Studio. This media displays information virtually on a smartphone screen when the application uses the camera to scan flashcards containing visual markers. A hybrid learning space is formed as students can see information virtually. But, physically, they are in control because they run applications and choose the type of flashcard they want to scan. The research was undertaken in several learning parks in Solo City, Central Java Province, Indonesia, with a total of 43 volunteer teachers and 132 early primary students participating. Previously, the ACES team (part of a UKRI funded project) had provided online training on the use of this media with teachers. Each teacher would then implement the media for all students in each learning park. The teachers demonstrate the media and each student takes turns running the application to view information virtually, therefore experiencing interactive learning. The qualitative approach was conducted for capturing teachers' perceptions of Augmented Reality media. A survey using the JISC online platform was distributed to capture participants' reflections on the activities and media used. Based on findings, the media appears beneficial, effective, and efficient for teaching anatomy concepts. Its virtual features can attract the children's attention and teachers do not need to bring a lot of physical teaching aids, just one application to explain all organ system concepts. Students can learn playfully on their own and feel new learning experiences. The results indicated that the intervention could create playful and frugal activities which build student engagement as a potential solution to address issues of Zoom Fatigue. The next stage of the project will involve volunteer teachers implementing the technology more widely in their classes.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of the 16th European Conference on Games Based Learning, ECGBL 2022
EditorsConceicao Costa
PublisherDechema e.V.
Number of pages9
ISBN (Electronic)978-1-914587-52-8
ISBN (Print)978-1-914587-51-1
Publication statusPublished - 29 Sept 2022
Event16th European Conference on Games Based Learning, ECGBL 2022 - Lisbon, Portugal
Duration: 6 Oct 20227 Oct 2022

Publication series

NameProceedings of the European Conference on Games-based Learning
ISSN (Print)2049-0992


Conference16th European Conference on Games Based Learning, ECGBL 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research is part of the ACES project, funded by the UKRI. ACES (A Community-Centred Educational Model for Developing Social Resilience) is investigating and seeking transformative educational models for young people toward a more inclusive, safe, and resilient society. One of the ACES principles is using Playful Learning and Frugal Education during the intervention for children in Indonesia.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 Dechema e.V.. All rights reserved.


  • ACES
  • Augmented Reality
  • Early-Primary Students
  • Frugal
  • Playful
  • Zoom Fatigue

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Artificial Intelligence
  • Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design
  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Human-Computer Interaction
  • Software
  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Education


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