The effect of vitamin D on the severity of dysmenorrhea and menstrual blood loss: a randomized clinical trial

Azam Amzajerdi, Maryam Keshavarz, Elham Ghorbali, Dr Sally Pezaro PhD RM MSc BA (Hons) SFHEA FRCM, Fatemeh Sarvi

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    Primary dysmenorrhea is considered as one of the women’s main problems during reproductive age. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of vitamin D on the severity of dysmenorrhea and menstrual blood loss.

    This double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, was performed on 84 single female college students between 18 and 25 years old who living in dormitories. Students with primary dysmenorrhea and vitamin D deficiency were divided into experimental (n = 42) and control (n = 42) groups. Five days before the putative beginning of their next menstrual cycle, the experimental group received 300,000 IU vitamin D (50,000 IU, two tablets every 8 h), and the control group received a placebo (oral paraffin). The effects of the supplement on the severity of dysmenorrhea and menstrual blood loss were evaluated one cycle before and during two successive cycles. Using the visual analog scale (VAS), verbal multidimensional scoring system (VMS), and pictorial blood assessment chart (PBLAC) questionnaires. Fisher’s exact, Chi-square, independent sample t-test and repeated measurements were used.

    In total, 78 of the 84 students completed the study (39 students per group). The intervention resulted in a significant reduction in the mean scores of both the VAS and VMS in the experimental group, in the first and second menstrual cycles (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, respectively), but not in the means score of PBLAC. Mefenamic acid consumption at the first and second menstruation period, in the experimental group was lower than the control group (p = 0.009, p < 0.001, respectively).

    The results indicate that vitamin D supplementation could decrease the severity of primary dysmenorrhea and the need to consume pain-relief medications. Contrariwise vitamin D supplementation had no significant effect on menstrual blood loss.
    Original languageEnglish
    Article number138
    Number of pages7
    JournalBMC Women's Health
    Publication statusPublished - 27 Mar 2023

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    • Menstrual blood loss
    • Primary dysmenorrhea
    • University students
    • Vitamin D


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