The effect of red pepper/capsaicin on blood pressure and heart rate: A systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials

Fatemeh Shirani, Sahar Foshati, Mohammad Tavassoly, Cain C.T. Clark, Mohammad Hossein Rouhani

    Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

    6 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Several studies have assessed the effect of red pepper on blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) and reported controversial results. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials that evaluated the effect of red pepper/capsaicin consumption on BP and HR. Medline, Scopus, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar were systematically searched, from database inception to August 2020, to ascertain clinical trials that evaluated the effects of red pepper or capsaicin on systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), or HR. Pooled effect size was calculated using a random-effects method. We performed subgroup analyses to discern probable sources of between-study heterogeneity. Meta-analysis showed no significant effect of red pepper/capsaicin on SBP (0.43 mmHg, 95% CI: −1.15 to 2.01), DBP (−0.45 mmHg, 95% CI: −2.14 to 1.24), and HR (−0.60 bpm, 95% CI: −1.97 to 0.78). Although between-study heterogeneity was high for SBP and DBP, we could not discern the potential sources of heterogeneity. In conclusion, red pepper/capsaicin had no effect on BP and HR. The findings should be interpreted with caution because between-study heterogeneity was high. Further well-designed and high-quality studies are required to investigate the efficacy and safety of red pepper/capsaicin supplement on BP and HR.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)6080-6088
    Number of pages9
    JournalPhytotherapy Research
    Volume35
    Issue number11
    Early online date22 Oct 2021
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - Nov 2021

    Bibliographical note

    Funding Information:
    This work was supported by the Food Security Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

    Publisher Copyright:
    © 2021 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

    Keywords

    • blood pressure
    • capsaicin
    • hear rate
    • meta-analysis
    • red pepper
    • systematic review

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Pharmacology

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